Lack of provision of safe water and proper sanitation is the major cause of outbreak of water borne diseases (see also water sanitation and health). According to the WHO, 1.8 million people die every year from diarrheal diseases (including cholera); 90% are children under five years of age, mostly in developing countries. However, providing drinking water and constructing toilets does not guarantee the prevention and control of these diseases. The low level of hygiene understanding and poor hygiene practices can increase the risk of transmission of diseases (see also health risk management, participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation and child hygiene and sanitation training). The main objective of this module is to conceptualise and integrate environmental health and water and sanitation. This module will cover the technical engineering control of pathogens and its relationship to water quality and health aspects (see also pathogens and contaminants). The students will learn to characterise and estimate potential adverse health effects associated with exposure of individuals or populations to hazardous materials or situations related to water and sanitation.
This is the last article in a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation. It considers what needs to be done to make significant progress towards ensuring universal access to hygiene, sanitation, and water in each sector itself, and then discusses which actors need to be involved to achieve an impact. Finally, the importance of the health sector in improving hygiene, sanitation, and water worldwide and propose a detailed Agenda for Action.CAIRNCROSS , S. ; BARTRAM, J. ; CUMMING, O. ; BROCKLEHURST, C. (2010): Hygiene, Sanitation, and Water: What Needs to Be Done?. In: PLoS Med: Volume 7 , 11. URL [Accessed: 25.11.2010]
This article is part of a four-part PLoS Medicine series on water and sanitation. It summarises the importance of a safe and reliable water supply for h man health, and highlight the negative effects of poor water supply. Furthermore, the article also discusses the reasons for the limited progress towards universal access to adequate aware supply and highlights that strenuous efforts are needed to improve the situation.HUNTER, P.R. ; MACDONALD, A.M. ; CARTERM R.C. (2010): Water Supply and Health. In: PLoS Med: Volume 7 , 11. URL [Accessed: 25.11.2010]
The article describes some of the key challenges related to water, sanitation and health.MOE, C. L. ; RHEINGANS, R. D. (2006): Global Challenges in Water, Sanitation, and Health. In: Journal of Water and Health : Volume 4 , 41-57. URL [Accessed: 06.10.2010]
Sustainable Pathways to Attain the Millennium Development Goals: Assessing the Key Role of Water, Energy and Sanitation
This report highlights the importance of the environment in achieving all MDGs. It focuses on three core aspects of goal fulfilment, namely freshwater to eradicate hunger and sustain ecosystems, energy and sanitation for poverty alleviation, health improvements and environmental sustainability.SEI (2005): Sustainable Pathways to Attain the Millennium Development Goals: Assessing the Key Role of Water, Energy and Sanitation. Stockholm: Stockholm Environmental Institute URL [Accessed: 30.03.2011]
This toolkit, intended for practitioners interested in behavior change, is organized into four modules: Behaviour Change, Sustainability, Integration and Results. Each has reports and presentations about the lessons learned from previous projects, as well as mass media, direct consumer contact, and interpersonal communication tools used throughout previous projects.WORLD BANK (2013): Handwashing With Soap Toolkit. Washington: World Bank URL [Accessed: 15.05.2013]