Point-of-Use (POU) systems refer to the range of water treatment methods including filters (e.g. ceramic candle filters), chemicals (e.g. chlorine), and others (e.g. SODIS), which treat water at the point of consumption rather than at the source, as it is the case for many centralised water treatment and distribution systems. Point-of-use (POU) water treatment systems have been put forward in recent years as low-cost, scalable, and effective solutions to the significant challenge of providing potable drinking water in lower income settings. See also Household-level Drinking Water Treatment or HWTS.