Household-Centred Environmental Sanitation (HCES) is a 10-step participatory sanitation planning process conceived by the Environmental Sanitation Working Group of the WSSCC in 2005 in the form of preliminary guidelines. HCES was subsequently field-tested in 7 countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America. The result of this testing phase is a revised 7-step approach called CLUES - Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation Planning. New CLUES guidelines, which are easier to use were published by Eawag, WSSCC and UN-Habitat in 2011. Since then, HCES is considered obsolete and is therefore no longer promoted.