This module provides insights about “Environment, Pollution levels and Implications”. A general overview of wastewater constituents is given. Wastewater as concept, its origin, characteristics and terminology will be introduced. Furthermore, an introductory overview on present strategies for handling of wastewater in the circumpolar Arctic is given. In the further reading material, more resources are available that cover the evidence on levels and trends in raw wastewater and linked to contamination sources and water bodies into which it is discharged. Fate and environmental effects of constituents such as organics, nutrients, metals, medical residues and health care products are discussed in terms of the Arctic context and referred to local, regional and global environmental challenges. An introduction to the microbiota including pathogenic and antibiotic resistant bacteria and virus of raw wastewater as well as recipients in the Arctic is given.