solution finder

23 June 2019

Project Management

Author/Compiled by
Leonellha Barreto Dillon (seecon international gmbh)
Executive Summary

All those who have been involved in a project will agree that making a project succeed is not simple. The difficulties are manifold: delays, excessive budget over-runs, inadequate results, dissatisfied end-beneficiaries, high stress among the project team and other undesirable outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of these project management guidelines is to help you to organise, plan and control your projects to make sure you do not encounter these difficulties. Projects are characterised by four features: a group of people, a goal, limited time and money and a certain level of uncertainty regarding whether the goals will be achieved. Project managers are involved with all of these aspects, which makes supervising and directing a project anything but an easy task. Following these lines will help you to maximise the potential for your projects to succeed by helping you address each element of your project at the right time and to the right level of detail for the size and complexity of your project.

Advantages
A more efficient usage of resources (both human and monetary resources) as both the schedule and the budget are defined in the project plan
Reduced cost and improved quality of the end product/service delivered by implementing rigorous cost management and quality management processes
A healthier, more solid relationship with the stakeholders
An enhanced teamwork environment because of the adoption of a formal process to acknowledging/resolving conflicts (conflict management)
A favourable touch of professionalism to the company leading to a better perception by outside organisations
Disadvantages
Project management costs money, which can be defined as an overhead cost. In the case of small organisations to cover the cost of one project manager is a huge overhead
Project management introduces another layer of communication between management and team members. Instead of having the information flow directly from functional managers down to the team members and back up, it’s all funnelled through the project manager
Instead of just “getting the project done”, which is the whole point of project management, some project managers have become so focused and so obsessed about the methodology that the latter has grown to be the “end” rather than the “mean to the end”. This jeopardises the delivery of the project and causes missed opportunities as project managers become so closed and so protective their own methodology that they refuse to experiment with another one that might be faster and better for their current project
Some organisations, when adopting project management, suffer from non-creativity, which can be either technical or managerial. Project management imposes deadlines on staff, which have to work as fast as they can to finish their tasks on time. This may demotivate the staff and adversely affects the quality of the end product
Factsheet Block Title
Introduction
Factsheet Block Body

In the last decades, projects became increasingly common in the water and sanitation sector. Project-based working methods have found their way into non-profit organisations. “The rules of the game for projects in non-profit organisations differ from those in commercial organisations, because there are political factors that play a particularly important role in the public sector. This makes it even more difficult for projects to succeed, compared to projects in which commercial aspects play a part. Project leaders should be aware of this and be able to play the game of politics” (BAARS 2006).

Factsheet Block Title
Definition of Project
Factsheet Block Body

A project is a unique venture to produce a set of outputs within clearly specified time, cost and quality constraints. Projects differ from standard business operational activities as they (adapted from METHOD123 2003):

  • Are distinctive in nature, not involving a repetitive process.
  • Have a define time-plan, with a specified start and end dates to meet the beneficiaries or funding agency’s requirements.
  • Have an allocated budget, which should be spent to produce the deliverables.
  • Have limited resources, such as labour, material and equipment.
  • Involve a risk, as there is a level of uncertainty whether the objectives will be attained.

 

Factsheet Block Title
To Be Successful a Project Must
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from BERR 2007)

Deliver the outcomes and benefits required by the organisation, its delivery partners and other stakeholder organisations.

  • Create and implement deliverables that meet agreed requirements.

 

Meet time targets.

  • Stay within financial budgets.
  • Involve all the right people.
  • Make best use of resources in the organisation and elsewhere.
  • Take account of changes in the way the organisation operates.
  • Manage any risks that could jeopardise success.
  • Take into account the needs of staff and other stakeholders who will be impacted by the changes brought about by the project.

 

Improper project management is just one of the factors that can cause a major delay in achieving the project goals. Source: WSP (2002)
Improper project management is just one of the factors that can cause a major delay in achieving the project goals. Source: WSP (2002)

 

Factsheet Block Title
Definition of Project Management
Factsheet Block Body

Project management is a carefully planned effort to accomplish a specific objective, using knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to plan and implement activities to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project.

The final aim of managing projects in the water and sanitation sector should be to “implement activities identified and planned for in the previous phases in an effective, cost-efficient and high quality way” (MORIARTY et al 2007).

Factsheet Block Title
Components of Project Management
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from BAARS 2006)

Goals should be defined so that they are achievable. Source: WSP (2009)
Goals should be defined so that they are achievable. Source: WSP (2009)

 

Improper project management is just one of the factors that can cause a major delay in achieving the project goals. Source: WSP (2002)

  • Team: A project team is comprised of a group of people who will realise the project result. The group is often comprised of people who have various backgrounds, each of whom contributes knowledge and skills.
  • Goal: A product result (or goal) is desired. After a project has been completed, something has been realised. A new treatment system has been implemented, a training course has been carried out or an assessment has been done. In many projects, it is necessary to adapt the goal as the project proceeds.
  • Limited resources: The amount of time and money that is available for completing a project is always limited. No project is completely free of time pressure.
  • Uncertainty (risk): One characteristic feature of projects is that their success is never guaranteed beforehand. Even if the desired goal is already being reached, it is uncertain whether it will be achieved within the available budget or within the proposed time. It is not unusual for a project to take three times as long and to cost twice as much as originally estimated. It is also not unusual for only thirty per cent of the original project team members to be working on the project upon its completion.

 

Although project managers must attend to many matters, they actually direct projects along only five parameters:

  • Time
  • Money
  • Quality
  • People (organisation)
  • Information

 

These five parameters, which are often known as the “control factors”, are described further below. The control factors appear in project plans, progress monitoring and project reporting.

Factsheet Block Title
Managing Time
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from BAARS 2006)

The time factor manifests itself in a project in the form of deadlines for tasks and the amount of time that these tasks may take. Managing time involves ensuring that tasks are completed on time.

Time in project plans:

  • Determine which activities should take place in which phase.
  • Estimate how long each activity will take.
  • Determine the order in which activities should be completed.
  • Allocate people and materials.
  • Allocate activities over time.
  • Determine the (most important) deadlines.

 

Time in progress monitoring:

  • Monitor progress.
  • Monitor deadlines.
  • Adjust schedules.

 

Time in project reporting:

  • Report on the actual timeline.
  • Analyse and explain why some tasks proceeded much more quickly or much more slowly than expected.

 

Time schedules are based on a work-breakdown structure (WBS). A WBS is a decomposition of the tasks that must be completed in order to achieve the project result, such as Work Packages or Activity Packages. Developing a time schedule requires knowing the amount of time that is needed for each task, who will complete each task and when. One frequently used tool for planning time is the bar chart or Gantt chart.

Gantt chart or bar chart, which is commonly used for time planning. Source: BARRETO (2010)
Gantt chart or bar chart, which is commonly used for time planning. Source: BARRETO (2010)

 

The Gantt chart is a specialised bar chart used to provide a graphical overview and schedule of all tasks to indicate the work elements and dependencies of project. This is a chart with rectangular bars. The length of each bar is proportional to the time value necessary for each task on the work breakdown structure. The final product illustrates the schedule of a project (MANAGING PROJECT RISKS 2009).

Factsheet Block Title
Managing Money
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from BAARS 2006)

The money factor manifests itself in the project budget. The management of money within a project involves ensuring that the costs remain within the budget. Given that the majority of the costs in most projects are comprised of labour costs, the factors of money and time (the number of labour hours) are closely intertwined. 

Money in project plans:

  • Determine the fees of the team members.
  • Estimate the hours for the team members.
  • Assign budgets to team members for specific tasks.
  • Determine costs for material and tools.

 

Money in progress monitoring:

  • Monitor cash flow.
  • Negotiate with suppliers.
  • Determine whether the original cost estimates are still accurate.
  • Adjust budgets.
  • Negotiate with customer and/or client concerning budget adjustments.

 

Money in project reporting:

  • Compile financial reports and statements.
  • Analyse definitive financial report.

 

Factsheet Block Title
Managing Quality
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from BAARS 2006)

The project result must fulfil a number of quality requirements. This also applies to the various intermediate products of the project. When managing a project, it is particularly important for quality requirements to be determined, agreed upon and recorded in writing during the definition phase. These requirements should never remain implicit. A clear list of requirements can be checked at the end of the implementation phase. This can allow the project team to prove that they have carried out the project according to specifications. Additional quality requirements may be specified for various tasks within the project. For example, a particular task can be carried out only by certified personnel. 

Quality in project plans:

  • Establish the desired quality of the project result and the intermediate products.
  • Establish the desired quality of the carrying out of the various activities in the project.

 

Quality in progress monitoring:

  • Test the (intermediate) results.
  • Address any quality problems.
  • Quality in the project reporting:
  • Confirm that the desired quality has been attained.
  • Address any complaints (particularly in the follow-up phase).

 

Factsheet Block Title
Managing People
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from BAARS 2006)

Within a project, the team must be managed. In the narrowest sense, team management involves determining who will do what from the list of activities. In broader terms, it also involves all of the soft skills (e.g. motivational techniques, communication skills, leadership styles) that are needed to achieve a goal with a group of people. 

Organisation in project plans:

  • Assemble the team.
  • Assign authority.
  • Assign tasks to team members.
  • Make agreements concerning the availability of people with other (project) managers and higher management.

 

Organisation in progress monitoring:

  • Direct the team.
  • Monitor human aspects (soft skills).
  • Mediate between the parties who are involved in the project.

 

Factsheet Block Title
Managing Information
Factsheet Block Body

(Adapted from BAARS 2006)

The information factor concerns how, by whom and on which basis decisions can be taken, as well as which tools (e.g. project website, issue tracker, e-mail notification, joint agenda) will be used for communication. These and other informational issues must be answered before a project can be started. Organisations that regularly work with projects have a number of tools (e.g. Word templates) on hand for handling information within a project. 

Information in project plans:

  • Which information must be provided to whom and in which form?
  • Which information will be recorded, distributed and archived?
  • Which information tools will be used?

 

Information in progress monitoring:

  • Arrange for periodic consultation.
  • Ensure that the right information is provided to the right person.
  • Determine whether agreements have been met.

 

Information in project reporting:

  • Write the project report.

 

Applicability

Any task that requires some preparation to achieve a successful outcome will probably be done better by using a few project management methods somewhere in the process. Project management methods can help in the planning and managing of all sorts of tasks, especially complex activities.

Project management techniques and project planning tools are useful for any tasks in which different outcomes are possible ― where risks of problems and failures exist ― and so require planning and assessing options, and organising activities and resources to deliver a successful result.

Library References

Project Management Handbook, Version 1.1 – July 2006

This project management tutorial is intended for anyone who is involved in or will be involved in projects that take place within or are conducted in association with DANS (Data Archiving and Networked Services). The text, however, has been prepared in such a way that it can be used by other organisations, particularly those in the non-profit sector, that use project-based working methods.

BAARS, W. (2006): Project Management Handbook, Version 1.1 – July 2006. URL [Accessed: 19.06.2019]

Guidelines for Managing Projects

The purpose of these project management guidelines is to help you to organise, plan and control your projects. They are designed to help you to maximise the potential for your projects to succeed by helping you address each element of your project at the right time and to the right level of detail for the size and complexity of your project.

BERR- DEPARTMENT FOR BUSINESS, ENTERPRISE AND REGULATORY REFORM (2007): Guidelines for Managing Projects. London: BERR URL [Accessed: 23.06.2019]

The EMPOWERS Approach to Water Governance: Guidelines, Methods and Tools

The guideline provides information necessary to understand the EMPOWERS approach of water governance and explains in details how to use the approach for planning and implementation of water management and related issues.

MORIARTY, P. BATCHELOR, C. ABD-ALHADI, F. LABAN, P. FAHMY, H. (2007a): INWRDAM The EMPOWERS Approach to Water Governance: Guidelines, Methods and Tools. pdf presentation. Amman, Jordan: Inter-Islamic Network on Water Resources Development and Management (INWRDAM) URL [Accessed: 18.03.2010]
Further Readings

Guidelines for Managing Projects

The purpose of these project management guidelines is to help you to organise, plan and control your projects. They are designed to help you to maximise the potential for your projects to succeed by helping you address each element of your project at the right time and to the right level of detail for the size and complexity of your project.

BERR- DEPARTMENT FOR BUSINESS, ENTERPRISE AND REGULATORY REFORM (2007): Guidelines for Managing Projects. London: BERR URL [Accessed: 23.06.2019]
Training Material

Project Management Handbook, Version 1.1 – July 2006

This project management tutorial is intended for anyone who is involved in or will be involved in projects that take place within or are conducted in association with DANS (Data Archiving and Networked Services). The text, however, has been prepared in such a way that it can be used by other organisations, particularly those in the non-profit sector, that use project-based working methods.

BAARS, W. (2006): Project Management Handbook, Version 1.1 – July 2006. URL [Accessed: 19.06.2019]
Awareness Raising Material

10 Keys for Local and National Action

Ten key points that are prerequisite for successful municipal wastewater management. They cover policy issues, management approaches, technology selection and financing mechanisms.

UNEP ; WHO ; UN-HABITAT ; WSSCC (2003): 10 Keys for Local and National Action . The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP/GPA), Coordination Office URL [Accessed: 30.06.2019]

This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

Cover image Module  1

This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

Cover image Module  2

This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

Cover image Module  3

This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

Cover image Module  4

This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

Cover image Module  5

This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

Cover image Module  6

Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

Download Materials
Further Readings

SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Why shit matters [Video File]

TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

"3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

Download Materials
Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Analyse waste supply

Download Materials
Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 2: Analyse market demand

Download Materials
Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3: Analyse your competition

Download Materials
Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

Download Materials
Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

Download Materials
Further Readings

A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

Week 1: Plan your production process

Download Materials
Further Readings

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Week 2: Understand the treatment process

Further Readings

Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

Further Readings

Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Decentralized composting in India

DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

Further Readings

Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

Week 3: Analyse financial viability

Further Readings

Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

Download Materials
Further Readings

Week 2: Finance the launch

Download Materials
Further Readings

Alternative Versions to