Soil solarisation is a non-pesticidal method of controlling soilborne pests by placing plastic sheets on moist soil during periods of high ambient temperature. The plastic sheets allow the sun's radiant energy to be trapped in the soil, heating the upper levels. Solarisation during the hot summer months can increase soil temperature to levels that kill many disease-causing organisms (pathogens), nematodes, and weed seed and seedlings. It leaves no toxic residues and can be easily used on a small or large scale. Soil solarisation also improves soil structure and increases the availability of nitrogen (N) and other essential plant nutrients.