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Sludge is a mixture of solids and liquids, containing mostly excreta and water, in combination with sand, grit, metals, trash and/or various chemical compounds. A distinction can be made between faecal sludge and wastewater sludge. Faecal sludge comes from onsite sanitation technologies, i.e., it has not been transported through a sewer. It can be raw or partially digested, a slurry or semisolid, and results from the collection and storage/treatment of excreta or blackwater, with or without greywater. For a more detailed characterization of faecal sludge refer to Strande et al., 2014. Wastewater sludge (also referred to as sewage Sludge) is sludge that originates from sewer-based wastewater collection and (semi-) centralized treatment processes. The sludge composition will determine the type of treatment that is required and the end-use possibilities.

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