A system with open ditches for the discharge of rainwater exist in most urbanised areas. The ditches usually drain-off rainwater into rivers or sometimes into agricultural irrigation canals. Unauthorised discharge of domestic waste into the system is quite common leading to surface water pollution and spreading of pathogens. However, where no wastewater infrastructure exists, drainage of wastewater through the system could be a possible temporary solution considering an appropriate treatment (e.g. waste stabilisation ponds, constructed wetlands) before reuse or discharge. In this case drains should be covered by concrete slabs to prevent blockages by litter and humans from getting in contact with their contents and rainwater should be allowed to enter the systems in periodic inlets.

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