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2018 أبريل 27

تحليل الاشخاص المعنين - أهميتهم وتاثيرهم

المؤلف*
Juri Lienert (seecon international gmbh)
ترجمة وتعريب : مؤسسة بناء
المُلخص التنفيذي

يستلزم تخطيط المشاركة انخراط أصحاب المصلحة المعنيين. و يتضمن ذلك تحديد اهتمامات و قيم العامة و تحقيق توافق عريض حول المبادرات المخطط لها. يتعلق الأمر أيضاً بالاستفادة من المعلومات و المعارف الهائلة لدى المساهمين لايجاد حلول عملية و فعالة و مستدامة (CAP-NET 2008). تحليل أصحاب المصحلة هو عملية تحديد و تحليل المشاركين و تخطيط مشاركتهم (WORLD BANK 1998). وهناك عدد هائل من المناهج المتعلقة بتحليل أصحاب المصلحة بدرجات تعقيد مختلفة (انظر مثلاً WORLD BANK 1998, NETSSAF 2008, CAP-NET 2005). نقدم هنا منهجية من أربع مراحل يمكن تنفيذها كاملة أو مختصرة حسب الحاجة: (1) هوية أصحاب المصلحة، (2) أهمية و نفوذ أصحاب المصلحة، (3) اهتمامات أصحاب المصحلة، (4) الخطةُ الاستراتيجيةِ لأصحاب المصلحة.

بعد تحديد الهوية، الخطوة التالية هي تحليل مدى أهمية إشراك جماعة ما من أصحاب المصلحة، و درجة النفوذ و القوة التي يمتلكها صاحب المصلحة للتأثير على نتاج مبادرة ما.

المزايا
يحقق فهماً حول كيفية التعاون مع أصحاب المصلحة المهمين و الحساسين.
وبذلك، يمكن تجنب الخلافات
يعطي للمخطط نظرة أولية حول أهمية مجموعات أصحاب المصالحة المهمة و المشاكل التي قد تواجهه
ييسر عملية التخطيط
العيوب
ليس نموذجياً و بالتالي قد يؤدي لتفسيرات خاطئة
احذر، قد يجعلك تأخذ أصحاب المصحلة ذوي التأثير البالغ بعين الاعتبار دوناً عن غيرهم
لا يُعنَى بكيفية استبعاد أصحاب المصلحة ذوي الأهمية و التأثير الأقل
في الواقع، هو يعطي فقط صورةً حول كيفية التعامل مع مختلف أصحاب المصلحة
يمكن نسيان بعض المعلومات المهمة التي قد تكون قيمةً لاحقاً، إذا اقتصر الأمر على الجدول فقط
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المقدمة
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يجب أن يلعب أصحاب المصلحة دوراً محورياً في تحديد الأولويات و الأهداف الخاصة بمبادرات المياه و الصرف الصحي لضمان وثاقة صلتها و ملائمتها للمبادرة. ومن الضروري أن ينخرط جميع أصحاب المصلحة في تطوير المشروع وألا يقتصر ذلك على المستفيدين من المبادرة بشكل مباشر.

من الجيد معرفة المزيد عن صفات أصحاب المصلحة، عند تخطيط استراتيجية لدمجهم في عملية اتخاذ القرار  واكتشاف كيفية التواصل و التعاون و المشاركة معهم.

سيساعد هذا لاحقاً في تعيين المسؤوليات لمختلف أصحاب المصلحة بحيث تنجح عملية التنفيذ و لا تظهر أية خلافات بين أصحاب المصلحة.

 

أولا، يتم تحليل درجة أهمية أصحاب المصلحة، بمعنى: درجة اهتمام شخصٍ ما بالمبادرة.

و الأهمية تعنى الأولوية المعطاة لتحقيق احتياجات و اهتمامات أصحاب المصلحة التي دفعتهم للانخراط في تصميم المشروع أو المشروع ذاته لضمان نجاحه. بمعنى آخر، يتعلق الأمر بأهمية أو ضرورة انخراط أحد أصحاب المصلحة (WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTER 2003).

ثانياً، يمكن لـقوة و نفوذ أحد أصحاب المصلحة التأثير في نجاح أو فشل مبادرة ما. تعني القوة امكانية تأثير صاحب المصلحة على تنفيذ المشروع لقدرته أو قوته (WINDBERG 2006). و يمكن أن تكون السلطة مهمة في دعم أو إعاقة المبادرة على حد سواء. و من المهم جداً لـ نجاح المبادرة معرفة امكانية و كيفية تصرف أحد أصحاب المصلحة، و كيف يمكنه الانخراط، و مدى قدرته على المشاركة. و فيما يخص الاخفاقات، من المهم معرفة التأثيرات (السلبية) المحتملة لأحد أصحاب المصحلة التي يمكنها أن تعيق أو حتى توقف المبادرة.

 

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Factsheet Block Title
’جدول الأهمية و التأثير‘
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هناك عدة طرق للإجابة على هذه الأسئلة (وفقاً للجدول الزمني، مثلاً). بناء "جدول أهمية و تأثير صاحب المصحلة" طريقة مختصرة و فعالة لتصنيف أصحاب المصلحة وفقاً لأهميتهم و تأثيرهم.

 

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كيفية بناء الجدول
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ارسم الجدول على لوحة كتابة كبيرة. أكتب أسم كلٍ من أصحاب المصلحة الموجودين في القائمة على بطاقة منفصلة "أو الصقه" و ثبت البطاقات على الجدول وفقاً لوجهة نظر المشاركين حول نسبة أهمية و تأثير كل من أصحاب المصلحة (و لا تستخدم الصمغ "أو الغراء"، و إلا ستجد صعوبة في تحريك البطاقات). و لا تقلق حول وضع البطاقات بشكل صحيح، حيث أنها بطبيعتها مسألة ترجيحٍ شخصي نوعاً ما. ما أن تصبح كل البطاقات في مواضعها، تراجع للوراء و ألق نظرة. إذا لزم الأمر، حرك بعض البطاقات
في الجدول حتى الوصول لتوافق. بعد ذلك اقرأ التعليقات تحت كل خانة حول مدى ملائمتها
 
 
 

مثال على جدول ’أهمية و تأثير‘ صاحب المصلحة. المصدر: WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTER (2003)

 

Factsheet Block Title
تحليل جدول الأهمية - التأثير و تطبيقه
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مربع أ: ستتطلب هذه المجموعة مبادراتٍ خاصةً لحماية مصالحها.

مربع ب: يجب خلق علاقة عمل قوية مع هذه المجموعة.

مربع ج: قد تكون هذه المجموعة مصدر خطر، و ستحتاج مراقبة و إدارة يقظة.

مربع د: قد تكون هذه المجموعة محدودة المشاركة في التقييم، لكن أولويتها محدودة نسبياً.

(WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTER 2003)

 

أحياناً، من المهم التفكير ملياً حول أسباب أهمية أصحاب المصلحة و امتلاكهم لنفوذ ما، و الاحتفاظ بهذه السجلات. يساعد هذا المخططين على عدم نسيان الجوانب المهمة لمختلف أصحاب المصلحة، و الحصول على نظرة أعمق حول منظور كل من أصحاب المصلحة و فهمهم بشكل أفضل. في مشروعات "الإدارة المستدامة للموارد المائية و الصرف الصحي" تحديداً، حيث مصالح المشاركين و خلافاتهم المحتملة دائماً معقدة و متعددة الجوانب، من الجيد بذل الجهد و الوقت لفهم علاقات أصحاب المصحلة و أهميتهم وبذلك تُتَجَنّب الخلافات و اخفاقات التنفيذ.

 

Factsheet Block Title
جدول أصحاب المصلحة
Factsheet Block Body
بإدراج الجوانب الرئيسبة حول أسباب أهمية أصحاب المصلحة و قدرتهم على التأثير في المبادرة و إضافة هذه المعلومات لقائمة
أصحاب المصلحة المعدة مسبقاً، تتحقق امكانية بسيطة لجمع معلومات نوعية حول أهمية و تأثير أصحاب المصلحة
 
 

 

 

 

مثال على التحليل النوعي للأهمية و التأثير لأحد مشروعات امدادات المياه على مستوى محلي. المصدر: LIENERT (2010)

هوية أصحاب المصلحة استمر مع تحليل مصالح المساهمين >

 

أو انظر أيضاً:

الخطوة 4 خطة استراتيجية أصحاب المصلحة

 

التطيبق

الإلمام بأهمية و تأثير أصحاب المصلحة ضروري لتشكيل خطة استراتيجية أصحاب المصلحة (انظر الخطوات) و لاتخاذ قرارات تشاركية في المستقبل على حد سواء. و تساهم في الوصول لفهم حول كيفية التعاون بين أصحاب المصلحة بطريقة معينة و كيفية تجنب الخلافات

المراجع

Integrated Water Resources Management Plans. Training Manual and Operational Guide

The Cap-Net manual is an introduction to essential parts of integrated water resource management (IWRM). Chapter 2 consists of management planning for IWRM, which provides good information about stakeholder process as well.

CAP-NET (2005): Integrated Water Resources Management Plans. Training Manual and Operational Guide. Pretoria: Cap-Net URL [Accessed: 30.06.2019]

Capacity Building for Ecological Sanitation

This publication deals with the educational aspects linked to ecologically sustainable sanitation, and contains extensive chapters on capacity building and knowledge management in the field of ecological sanitation.

UNESCO/IHP ; GTZ (2006): Capacity Building for Ecological Sanitation. Paris & Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) & International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO (UNESCO/IHP) URL [Accessed: 15.04.2019]

NETSSAF Participatory Planning-Approach

This is the actual tutorial of the participative planning approach developed by NETSSAF, containing all the steps, sub-steps and case studies. It is freely available on the internet in French and English.

NETSSAF (2008): NETSSAF Participatory Planning-Approach. A tutorial for sustainable sanitation planning. Network for the Development of Sustainable Approaches for Large Scale Implementation of Sanitation in Africa (NETSSAF). [Accessed: 29.03.2010] PDF

Guidance Note on how to do Stakeholder Analysis of Aid Projects and Programmes

This guidance note provides a step-by-step manual on how to do a stakeholder analysis. Effective strategies for stakeholder participation must be based on good analysis of individuals, groups, and institutions with an interest in a project.

ODA (1995): Guidance Note on how to do Stakeholder Analysis of Aid Projects and Programmes. London: Overseas Development Department (ODA) URL [Accessed: 30.06.2019]

Strategy Development for Successful Implementation of Ecological Sanitation Approaches in Sri Lanka using Stakeholder Analysis. Report 3 of 3 from "Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Ecological Sanitation in Relation to the Social, Cultural and Economic

The presented stakeholder analysis provides the necessary information to develop strategies for the successful implementation of ecological sanitation approaches in Sri Lanka.

WINDBERG (2009): Strategy Development for Successful Implementation of Ecological Sanitation Approaches in Sri Lanka using Stakeholder Analysis. Report 3 of 3 from "Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Ecological Sanitation in Relation to the Social, Cultural and Economic. Paris: UNICEF URL [Accessed: 18.08.2010]
قراءات أخرى

:ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺭﻀﺎ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﺼﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ . ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻴﻨﻭﻯ. مجلة ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻓﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ١٠٩مجلد ٣٤ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ٢٠١٢ .ﺹ[٢٥٦-٢٣٣.ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ.ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ الموصل

هي دراسة ميدانية في الشركة العامة لصناعة الأدوية في نينوى تهدف الي تقييم رضا بعض أصحاب المصالح وتوضح الاطر المنهجية واهداف البحث وفرضيات البحث وأدواته وثباته

ﻋﻼﺀ الجبوري, ﻋﻠﻲ سالم أحمد (2012): :ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺭﻀﺎ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﺼﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻟﺢ . ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻴﻨﻭﻯ. مجلة ﺗﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻓﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ١٠٩مجلد ٣٤ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ٢٠١٢ .ﺹ[٢٥٦-٢٣٣.ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ.ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ الموصل. URL [Accessed: 25.08.2017]

ﺩﻭﺭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ المصلحة في ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ المستدامة في المؤسسة ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ. ﻘﺴﻨﻄﻴﻨﺔ

تسعي هذه الورقة الحالية الي تحديد دور ادارة العلاقة مع الاطراف اصحاب المصلحة في اسقاط ابعاد التنمية المستدامة علي مستوي المؤسسة الاقتصادية

حمزة ﺭﻣﻠﻲ,إسماعيل ﺯﺣﻮﻁ (2012): ﺩﻭﺭ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ المصلحة في ﺗﻔﻌﻴﻞ ﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ المستدامة في المؤسسة ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ. ﻘﺴﻨﻄﻴﻨﺔ . URL [Accessed: 25.08.2017]

Language: Arabic

ﻣﺸﺮوع اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻹﺷﺮاك أﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻋﻤﻞ اﻟﻤﻨﺒﺮ.الأمم المتحدة

اﻷﻣﻢ اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة (2013): ﻣﺸﺮوع اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﻹﺷﺮاك أﺻﺤﺎب اﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻟﺪﻋﻢ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻋﻤﻞ اﻟﻤﻨﺒﺮ.الأمم المتحدة. URL [Accessed: 25.08.2017]

Language: Arabic

Guidance Note on how to do Stakeholder Analysis of Aid Projects and Programmes

This guidance note provides a step-by-step manual on how to do a stakeholder analysis. Effective strategies for stakeholder participation must be based on good analysis of individuals, groups, and institutions with an interest in a project.

ODA (1995): Guidance Note on how to do Stakeholder Analysis of Aid Projects and Programmes. London: Overseas Development Department (ODA) URL [Accessed: 30.06.2019]

Good Practices in Participatory Mapping

This report explores the power of participatory mapping. Covering a range of techniques, intermediaries, tools and impacts, it is shown how a systematic approach could contribute to addressing conflict-related issues and improving community ownership in sustainable environmental and natural resource management.

IFAD (2009): Good Practices in Participatory Mapping. Rome: International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) URL [Accessed: 04.05.2010]

Integrated Water Resources Management Plans. Training Manual and Operational Guide

The Cap-Net manual is an introduction to essential parts of integrated water resource management (IWRM). Chapter 2 consists of management planning for IWRM, which provides good information about stakeholder process as well.

CAP-NET (2005): Integrated Water Resources Management Plans. Training Manual and Operational Guide. Pretoria: Cap-Net URL [Accessed: 30.06.2019]

Capacity Building for Ecological Sanitation

This publication deals with the educational aspects linked to ecologically sustainable sanitation, and contains extensive chapters on capacity building and knowledge management in the field of ecological sanitation.

UNESCO/IHP ; GTZ (2006): Capacity Building for Ecological Sanitation. Paris & Eschborn: German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) & International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO (UNESCO/IHP) URL [Accessed: 15.04.2019]

NETSSAF Participatory Planning-Approach

This is the actual tutorial of the participative planning approach developed by NETSSAF, containing all the steps, sub-steps and case studies. It is freely available on the internet in French and English.

NETSSAF (2008): NETSSAF Participatory Planning-Approach. A tutorial for sustainable sanitation planning. Network for the Development of Sustainable Approaches for Large Scale Implementation of Sanitation in Africa (NETSSAF). [Accessed: 29.03.2010] PDF

Getting communities engaged in water and sanitation projects: participatory design and consumer feedback

Community engagement in water and sanitation service delivery is key for ensuring project sustainability and accountability. This Topic Brief looks at community engagement approaches used by WSUP in three cities within the African Cities for the Future (ACF) programme: Antananarivo (Madagascar), Kumasi (Ghana) and Maputo (Mozambique). The Topic Brief highlights some of the key challenges, and ends with practical recommendations for programme managers about how to engage low-income communities in the design of water supply and sanitation projects.

WSUP (2013): Getting communities engaged in water and sanitation projects: participatory design and consumer feedback. London: Water & Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) URL [Accessed: 30.06.2019]
حالات دراسية

ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻓﻴﺔ. ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺲ.مصر.

هي مذكرة توضح مشاركة اصحاب المصالح في ادارة المياه الجوفية وانشطة اصحاب المصالح وما هي الاليات المؤسسية لمشاركة أصحاب المصلحة

البنك الدولي (2006): ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﻓﻴﺔ. ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻗﻨﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﻳﺲ.مصر.. URL [Accessed: 25.08.2017]

Language: Arabic

Strategy Development for Successful Implementation of Ecological Sanitation Approaches in Sri Lanka using Stakeholder Analysis. Report 3 of 3 from "Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Ecological Sanitation in Relation to the Social, Cultural and Economic

The presented stakeholder analysis provides the necessary information to develop strategies for the successful implementation of ecological sanitation approaches in Sri Lanka.

WINDBERG (2009): Strategy Development for Successful Implementation of Ecological Sanitation Approaches in Sri Lanka using Stakeholder Analysis. Report 3 of 3 from "Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Ecological Sanitation in Relation to the Social, Cultural and Economic. Paris: UNICEF URL [Accessed: 18.08.2010]
مواد تدريبية

Stakeholder Analysis

This short PowerPoint presentation explains in a brief way how to do a stakeholder analysis and also contains empty tables that can be directly used for analysing stakeholders.

PUBLIC SECTOR IMPROVEMENT FACILITY (n.y): Stakeholder Analysis. URL [Accessed: 30.06.2019]
مواد لنشر الوعي

10 Keys for Local and National Action

Ten key points that are prerequisite for successful municipal wastewater management. They cover policy issues, management approaches, technology selection and financing mechanisms.

UNEP ; WHO ; UN-HABITAT ; WSSCC (2003): 10 Keys for Local and National Action . The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP/GPA), Coordination Office URL [Accessed: 30.06.2019]

    This module introduces the importance of market-based RRR solutions. At the end of this module you have identified key challenges in your local sanitation and waste management system and a RRR-related business idea.

    Cover image Module  1

    This module sheds light on the importance of studying the business environment and its components like waste supply, market demand, competition and the institutional framework. At the end of this module you have gained insights to evaluating the potential of your business idea.

    Cover image Module  2

    This module shows how a business idea can be turned into a business model while putting a specific focus on understanding the customer and designing products that meet their needs. At the end of this module you will have developed a business model and positioned your offer in the market.

    Cover image Module  3

    This module focusses on planning the operations of a RRR related business. During this part RRR technologies will be introduced for different waste streams and tools for planning the production process. At the end of this module you will have blueprinted your production process and the required technology and production inputs.

    Cover image Module  4

    This module covers key aspects of financial planning and analysis. At the end of this module you will have forecasted your profits, cash flows, required investment and evaluated the financial viability of your business model.

    Cover image Module  5

    This module enables you to set objectives and plan activities for the launch of your RRR business and identify potential financing sources. At the end of this module you will have developed an action plan for launch and identified appropriate financing sources.

    Cover image Module  6

    Week 1: Identify challenges in your local sanitation & waste management

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    SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles

    This AGUASAN publication illustrates how the water and nutrient cycles can be used as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system and aligning it with SDG 6.

    BROGAN, J., ERLMANN, T., MUELLER, K. and SOROKOVSKYI, V. (2017): SDG 6 along the water and nutrient cycles. Using the water and nutrient cycles as a tool for creating a common understanding of a water and sanitation system - including workshop material. Bern (Switzerland): AGUASAN and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

    Why shit matters [Video File]

    TEDX TALKS (2019): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4yD0kz34jg [Accessed: 28.03.2019]

    "3 billion people worldwide live in cities without sewers or wastewater treatment plant infrastructure. This forces them to dump their waste into open waters, contaminating the drinking water for others downstream. Imagine if we could harness nutrients in wastewater instead of harming human and environmental health. Christoph Lüthi sees a renewable, locally produced and growing resource where others see only human waste. Watch his talk to learn why shit matters! "

    Week 2: Identify RRR products and business opportunities

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    A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

    AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

    GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

    OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Week 1: Analyse waste supply

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 2: Analyse market demand

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3: Analyse your competition

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 4: Analyse the institutional environment

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 1: Meet the Business Model Canvas

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    A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study

    AMOAH, P., MUSPRATT, A., DRECHSEL, P. and OTOO, M. (2018): A public-private partnership linking wastewater treatment and aquaculture (Ghana) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section IV, Chapter 15, pp.617-630. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study

    GEBREZGABHER, S. and MUSISI, A. (2018): Briquettes from agro-waste (Kampala Jellitone Suppliers, Uganda) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section II, Chapter 3, pp.41-51. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study

    OTOO, M., KARANJA, N., ODERO, J. and HOPE, L. (2018): Cooperative model for financially sustainable municipal solid waste composting (NAWACOM, Kenya) - Case Study. In: Otoo, M. and Drechsel, P. (Eds.). Resource recovery from waste: business models for energy, nutrient and water reuse in low- and middle-income countries. Oxon (UK): Routledge - Earthscan. Section III, Chapter 3, pp.362-370. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019]

    Week 1: Plan your production process

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    Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

    This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

    TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

    Week 2: Understand the treatment process

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    Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings

    LOHRI, C. R., DIENER, S., ZABALETA, I. MERTENAT, A. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2017): Treatment technologies for urban solid biowaste to create value products: a review with focus on low- and middle-income settings. In: Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 81–130. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2019] PDF

    Week 3A: Design technology systems for nutrient recovery

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    Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery

    COFIE, O., NIKIEMA, J., IMPRAIM, R., ADAMTEY, N., PAUL, J. and KONÉ, D. (2016): Co-composting of Solid Waste and Fecal Sludge for Nutrient and Organic Matter Recovery. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 3. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Decentralized composting in India

    DRESCHER, S. and ZURBRÜGG, C. (2004): Decentralized composting in India. In: Harper et al. Sustainable Composting: Case Studies in Guidelines for Developing Countries. Loughborough (UK): Water Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, Part2: Case Studies, Chapter 3, pp.15-27. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

    Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives

    KARANJA, N., KWACH, H. and NJENGA, M. (2005): Low Cost Composting Training Manual: techniques based on the UN-Habitat/Urban Harvest-CIP community based waste management initiatives. Nairobi (Kenya): UN-Habitat. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3B: Design technology systems for energy recovery

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    Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market

    FERGUSON, H. (2012): Briquette Businesses in Uganda. The potential for briquette enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. London (UK): Global Village Energy Partnership (GVEP) International. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019] PDF

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 3C: Design technology systems for water recovery

    قراءات أخرى

    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Chapter 3 - Technology Selection

    VEENSTRA, S., ALAERTS, G. and BIJLSMA, M. (1997): Chapter 3 - Technology Selection. In: Helmer, R. and Hespanhol, I. (Eds). Water Pollution Control - A Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles. London (UK): World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects

    Volume I of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater focuses on policy, regulation and institutional arrangements. Accordingly, its intended readership is made up of policy-makers and those with regulatory responsibilities. It provides guidance on policy formulation, harmonisation and mainstreaming, on regulatory mechanisms and on establishing institutional links between the various interested sectors and parties. It also presents a synthesis of the key issues from Volumes II, III, and IV and the index for all four volumes as well as a glossary of terms used in all four volumes is presented in Annex 1.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume I. Policy and Regulatory Aspects. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 10.04.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture

    Volume II of the Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater provides information on the assessment and management of risks associated with microbial hazards and toxic chemicals. It explains requirements to promote the safe use of wastewater in agriculture, including minimum procedures and specific health-based targets, and how those requirements are intended to be used. It also describes the approaches used in deriving the guidelines, including health-based targets, and includes a substantive revision of approaches to ensuring microbial safety.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume II. Wastewater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 05.06.2019] PDF

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture

    Volume III of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater deals with wastewater and excreta use in aquaculture and describes the present state of knowledge regarding the impact of wastewater-fed aquaculture on the health of producers, product consumers and local communities. It assesses the associated health risks and provides an integrated preventive management framework.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume III. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 08.05.2019]

    Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture

    Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.

    WHO (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO) URL [Accessed: 09.05.2019] PDF

    Week 3: Analyse financial viability

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    Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans

    OTOO, M., DRECHSEL, P., DANSO, G., GEBREZGABHER, S., RAO, K. and MADURANGI G. (2016): Testing the implementation potential of resource recovery and reuse business models: from baseline surveys to feasibility studies and business plans. Colombo (Sri Lanka): International Water Management Institute (IWMI), CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). Resource Recovery and Reuse Series 10. URL [Accessed: 27.03.2019]

    Week 1: Set objectives and plan activities for launch

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    Week 2: Finance the launch

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    Alternative Versions to