Urine Separation - Closing the Nutrient Cycle

This report presents the present state of knowledge about urine-separating toilets and systems for the recirculation of urine as an agricultural fertilizer. It contains a description of urine separation technology and how a system can be constructed for recirculating urine from residential districts to farmland. It also contains concrete recommendations about planning and management of the various components of the system.

JOHANSSON, M. (2000): Urine Separation - Closing the Nutrient Cycle. Final Report of the R&D Project: Source-Separated Human Urine - A Future Source of Fertilizer for Agriculture in the Stockholm Region. Stockholm: Stockholm Vatten, Stockholmshem & HSB National Federation URL [Accessed: 31.05.2019]