PETER-VARBANETS, M.; ZURBRÜGG, C.; SWARTZ, C.; PRONK, W. (2009): Review: Decentralized Systems for Potable Water and the Potential of Membrane Technology. In: Water Research 43, 245-265. URL [Accessed: 18.04.2012]. PDF
This review focuses on decentralised systems that treat the potable water (drinking and cooking) of a single household (point-of-use systems) or a community (small-scale systems). For application in developing and transition countries, important boundary conditions for decentralised systems include low costs, ease of use, sustainability, low maintenance and independence of utilities (energy sources). Although some low-cost systems are available, their application is limited by time-consuming daily operation and maintenance. Other systems are too expensive for the poor populations of developing and transition countries and in most cases do not fulfil the system requirements described above. Point-of-use systems based on membranes are commercially available and are designed to operate on tap pressure or gravity.