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Electronic waste may be defined as discarded computers, office electronic equipment, entertainment device electronics, mobile phones, television sets and refrigerators. This definition includes used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling, or disposal. Others define the re-usables (working and repairable electronics) and secondary scrap (copper, steel, plastic, etc.) to be "commodities", and reserve the term "waste" for residue or material which is dumped by the buyer rather than recycled, including residue from reuse and recycling operations. مرادفات: E-Scrap, Electronic Equipment, Electronic Waste, Waste Electrical, WEEE
An approach that aims to safely recycle nutrients, water and/or energy contained in excreta and wastewater in such a way that the use of non-renewable resources is minimized. مرادفات: Ecosan, Re-use Oriented Sanitation, Resources-Oriented Sanitation
The Ecological Society of America (ESA) is a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization of scientists founded in 1915 to: promote ecological science by improving communication among ecologists; raise the public's level of awareness of the importance of ecological science; increase the resources available for the conduct of ecological science; and ensure the appropriate use of ecological science in environmental decision making by enhancing communication between the ecological community and policy-makers. مرادفات: ESA
The Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies was first published in 2008 during the International Year of Sanitation, and the Second Edition will be published late 2013.
The document's popularity is its brevity - ordering and structuring a huge range of information on tried and tested technologies in a single document. As in the first edition only proven technologies that are appropriate for low- and middle-income settings are presented. Also, only improved sanitation technologies are presented, featuring safe, hygienic, and accessible sanitation. In the eCompendium edition the whole range of urban, peri-urban and rural technologies (e.g. from simple pits to conventional sewers) are presented. مرادفات: The eCompendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies
With economic tools, people change their behaviour because the want to achieve maximal benefit at minimal cost. Economic tools involve the use of prices and other market-based instruments to provide monetary incentives to change behaviour.
Ecosan Project Steps
The guidelines and toolbox presented in the GTZecosan source book aim to address the needs and interests of initiators, planners, practitioners and other stakeholders in the preparation and implementation of ecological sanitation (ecosan) projects. This process should be participation oriented, including all stakeholders. The GTZecosan approach aims to supply these groups with methods, material, information and ideas as to how they structure the working steps of a particular project.
The benefits derived from material and energy flows in an ecosystem.
The Ecoville is a permanent relocation site for victims of the Sendong typhoon, in Barangay Lumbia. The settlement is currently under construction and aims at becoming a sustainable and self-reliant community. Xavier University donated the land for this site and is organising its construction and development. مرادفات: Xavier Ecoville, XE
EM stands for Effective Microorganism referring to mixed culture microbial inoculants composed of several species of beneficial microorganism (lactic acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, and yeast). The microorganism live together in symbiosis, each one produces something that is needed by the other one and it is pathogen free. EMs are mainly used as soil amendment or to control waste degradation. EM has been trademarked and is available commercially. But it is often expensive and spoils after some weeks as they are manipulated for commercialisation. Effective microorganisms, depending on the purpose, can also be obtained at home. For lacto-fermentation the easiest way to obtain an effective microbial mix is probably to take an inoculum from sauerkraut (pickled sour cabbage) liquid. مرادفات: EM
Effluent is the general term for a liquid that leaves a technology, typically after blackwater or sludge has undergone solids separation or some other type of treatment. Effluent originates at either a collection and Storage or a (semi-) centralized treatment technology. Depending on the type of treatment, the effluent maybe completely sanitized or may require further treatment before it can be used or disposed of.
The term emergency is used to describe the crisis that arises when a community has great difficulty in coping with a disaster. Disasters can be either natural or induced by humans, can be slow or sudden onset and they result in a serious disruption of society, cause widespread human suffering and physical loss or damage, and stretch the community’s normal coping mechanisms to breaking point.
Emergency phases roughly describe the steps that affected people go through after an emergency. They typically include: immediate or acute emergency phase, about 1 week up to 3 months after the event; stabilisation phase, typically starting after 2-4 weeks and lasting until 2-6 months after the event; recovery phase with long-term action, taking several months and up to 1 or more years; settlement or long-term phase, lasting perhaps for years after the disaster. The exact duration depends on the event and the context of the emergency. Duration is not time-bound but rather depends on the achievement of set targets (indicators). مرادفات: Emergency Response Phases
EMPOWERS is a regional programme mainly funded by the European Commission's MEDA (Mediterranean Regional Programme for Local Water Management) Water Programme, working in Egypt, Jordan, West Bank and Gaza. The EMPOWERS partnership aims at improving vulnerable populations’ long-term access and rights to water. For this, it follows a participatory water planning and management process with all stakeholders. The EMPOWERS approach seeks to improve water governance at the local level (water users; communities) and at the intermediate level (decentralised water managements and service providers in districts and states). The Guideline provided by EMPOWERS constitutes a practical and logical framework of activities based on the involvement of those who use and manage water, which leads towards improved local water governance and the development and implementation of integrated water development plans for towns, districts and villages. Furthermore, the guidelines advocate collaboration through dialogue to bring about a change in a way that water management professionals and water users work with each other. مرادفات: EMPOWERS Approach
End-of-pipe techniques are methods used to remove already formed contaminants from a stream of air, water, waste, product or similar (instead of using cleaner production options). These techniques are called 'end-of-pipe' as they are normally implemented as a last stage of a process before the stream is disposed of or delivered. مرادفات: end of pipe
Energisers are facilitation exercises. They raise the energy level of a training session by gaining back people’s attention and interest and therefore improving the training by itself. Enjoyable activities which refresh the group can be incorporated within a training course in order to stimulate the participants either physically, mentally or at best both together. It is very important to adjust the type of energisers as well as the required time frame and material to the specific context of the training.
Power derived from the utilisation of physical or chemical resources (e.g. the conversion of biogas to electricity), especially used to provide light and heat or to work machines.
Converts chemical energy (e.g. from diesel, petroleum) to mechanical energy.
ENPHO is a service-oriented national Non Governmental Organization, established in 1990 that envisages contributing in sustainable community development by combining research and actions through the integrated programs in the environment and public health areas.
Ensuring sustainability includes measures and actions to make a project sustainable, i.e. socially viable, economically feasible, and economically durable, and also lasting. مرادفات: Ensure Sustainability
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli
Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), can cause severe foodborne disease. It is transmitted to humans primarily through consumption of contaminated foods, such as raw or undercooked ground meat products and raw milk.
Infection with ETEC is the leading cause of travellers' diarrhoea and a major cause of diarrheal disease in underdeveloped nations, especially among children. ETEC is transmitted by food or water contaminated with animal or human faeces. Although ETEC causes a significant amount of illness worldwide, the infection will end on its own and is rarely life-threatening.
The minimum flow required keeping water related ecosystems alive.
Environmental Impact Assessment
An environmental impact assessment identifies and predicts the impact on of a measure or project on the environment and on man's health and well-being before the project is realised. Based on these potential consequences, alternative strategies may be sought or the project may be cancelled altogether if the impact is too negative. An EIA is completed with an auditing at project termination which compares actual outcomes with predicted outcomes. مرادفات: Environmental-Impact-Assessment
Interventions that reduce peoples’ exposure to disease by providing a clean environment in which to live, with measures to break the cycle of disease. This usually includes hygienic management of human and animal excreta, solid waste, wastewater, and stormwater; the control of disease vectors; and the provision of washing facilities for personal and domestic hygiene. Environmental Sanitation involves both behaviours and facilities that work together to form a hygienic environment.
Escherichia Coli is a type of bacteria that inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and other mammals. It is not necessarily harmful, but it is used as an indicator of faecal contamination of water. مرادفات: E. Coli, E.Coli
The enrichment of water, both fresh and saline, by nutrients (especially the compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus) that accelerate the growth of algae and higher forms of plant life and lead to the depletion of oxygen, blockage of sunlight and increasing temperatures. These changes may harm the original ecosystem. Eutrophication may occur naturally or as the result of anthropogenic influences (e.g. water pollution). Eutrophic comes from the Greek word eutrophos meaning well nourished. Eutrophic waters are distinguished from logographic waters, characterised by a nutrient deficiency, and mesotrophic waters with an intermediate level of productivity. مرادفات: Hypertrophication
Ex-situ emergency response is addressed to people that have (temporary) left their homes. The level and type of displacement vary. Settlements generally fall into one of the three categories: highly dispersed (dispersed settlement or host families); mass shelters (e.g. in schools, warehouses or mosques, mostly in urban areas) or in self-settlements (spontaneous camps) or previously planned camps (UNHCR 2007). People living ex-situ after an emergency event have the status of internally displaced persons, IDPs, or that of refugees if they cross international boundaries.
Executing includes all the necessary activities to actually execute or implement a project (i.e., after the conceptualisation/planning phase).
These are tools to assess the current status and identify problems in a participatory manner, to define boundaries and to find out about who the important stakeholders are.
External Combustion Engine
An external combustion engine is a heat engine where an (internal) working fluid is heated by combustion of an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger. The fluid then, by expanding and acting on the mechanism of the engine produces motion and usable work. The fluid is then cooled, compressed and reused in a closed cycle. Unlike the steam engine's use of water in both its liquid and gaseous phases as the working fluid, the Stirling engine encloses a fixed quantity of permanently gaseous fluid such as air or helium. As in all heat engines, the general cycle consists of compressing cool gas, heating the gas, expanding the hot gas, and finally cooling the gas before repeating the cycle. مرادفات: EC Engine, Stirling Engine