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Train the Trainers

Training of Trainers Perspective image

How do you ensure not to forget anything important for your upcoming workshop? How can trainings be planned, organized and carried out effectively? This is a perspective for trainers and facilitators supporting them to carry out workshops, trainings and capacity development courses based on the SSWM Toolbox. It contains material about pre-training preparation, facilitation, training methods and post training activities. Explore the related factsheets to find check-lists, guidance, tipps and helpful considerations for your water, sanitation and resources management events.  

Pre-training Preparations

How do you come up with the right agenda? Who should you invite? Explore the toolsheets in this section to design your workshop or training, promote…
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Facilitation

How do you help other learn and make things easy? Understand your role as a facilitator, achieve your workshop objectives and make sure your…
11 Factsheets
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Training Methods

Avoid a powerpoint overkill, if you want your participants to benefit from your event. Read through the descriptions of different training methods…
5 Factsheets
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Post Training Activities

The training course is over, your work isn't! Find some of the most important post training activities in the factsheets compiled in this section.
4 Factsheets
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Icebreakers

Icebreakers can be very useful in trainings and can contribute to a better training outcome. On the one hand, icebreakers can be implemented to…

Energisers

Energisers raise the energy level of a training session by gaining back people’s attention and interest and therefore improving the training by…

Adult Learning Principles

Learning opportunities for adults exist in a variety of settings, ranging from a formal institution to day to day practical learning at work. It is…

Learning Needs Analysis

Learning needs analyses are undertaken to determine the gap between the existing skills, knowledge and abilities and those desired. Once this gap is…

Rich Pictures

Rich pictures are pictorial representations of environmental or social systems. They can help to organise complex situations and identify underlying…

Planning a Training

Before you conduct training, you need to do a detailed plan for what you will do, why you will be doing it and how to reach your objectives. When…

Developing an Agenda

When planning a training or workshop, it is very important to develop an agenda. The training agenda should meet the identified training needs in…

Marketing of a Training

As a training services provider, you know how important an efficient and effective training program is for ensuring long-term success in today's…

Selection of Resource Persons

When developing the course curriculum, aims, and objectives, also training resource persons should be identified. Every training manager should try…

Selection of Participants

The returns from investing in training depend crucially on the quality, motivation and appropriateness of the participants. Hence, it is very useful…

Planning Individual Sessions

A sizable portion of the work involved in a training course takes place well before the first day of classes. It is important to plan the sessions…

Preparing Fieldtrips

Fieldtrips are visits to communities project, field sites or other sites organised by the trainer, where participants can observe different…

Logistics

To develop successful training courses you need a combination of skills and expertise. Good logistical planning is one of the most crucial aspects of…

Handouts Preparation

Some presenters treat handouts like an afterthought or even forget them altogether, justifying their action with: "They will just get trashed anyway…

Facilitators Role

A facilitator is literally defined as “one who helps others to learn or who helps to make things easy.” A facilitator helps participants to…

The content of this perspective was compiled by seecon and is based on 20 years of experiences in facilitating trainings, workshops and events. The guidance provided in the factsheets of this perspective is meant to help trainers and facilitators to yield the best results, be it by effectively structuring learning processes for participants of training courses or through process oriented facilitation of participatory workshops or consultations.

The content of this perspective was compiled by seecon and is based on 20 years of experiences in facilitating trainings, workshops and events. The guidance provided in the factsheets of this perspective is meant to help trainers and facilitators to yield the best results, be it by effectively structuring learning processes for participants of training courses or through process oriented facilitation of participatory workshops or consultations.

    How do you come up with the right agenda? Who should you invite? Explore the toolsheets in this section to design your workshop or training, promote it effectively and make sure all logistics are sorted out.

    How do you help other learn and make things easy? Understand your role as a facilitator, achieve your workshop objectives and make sure your participants have fun and are attentive (rather than falling asleep). In this section you find practical guidance and tipps to become an even better facilitator.

    Avoid a powerpoint overkill, if you want your participants to benefit from your event. Read through the descriptions of different training methods presented below to find the right mix for your workshop.

    The training course is over, your work isn't! Find some of the most important post training activities in the factsheets compiled in this section.

    Learning Needs Analysis

    Further Readings

    Module 6 − Planning Training of Trainers (TOT) Workshops

    This module is a guide to developing and implementing Training of Trainers (TOT) workshops. The overall objective of the module is to equip the participants with the knowledge and skills required to design and conduct practical training courses in mainstreaming gender in IWRM, but it can also be used for other training of trainer’s workshops. The module is supposed to be used as a manual to be able to deliver culturally specific training of trainers.

    KRCHNAK, K. M. GWA (2003): Module 6 − Planning Training of Trainers (TOT) Workshops. In: GWA (2003): Gender Mainstreaming: Practical Skills and Critical Analysis ODG. Dieren: 267-294.

    Planning a Training

    Further Readings

    Gender Mainstreaming: Practical Skills and Critical Analysis ODG

    This module is a guide to developing and implementing Training of Trainers (TOT) workshops. The overall objective of the module is to equip the participants with the knowledge and skills required to design and conduct practical training courses in mainstreaming gender in IWRM. The module is supposed to be used as a manual to be able to deliver culturally specific training of trainers.

    GWA (2003): Gender Mainstreaming: Practical Skills and Critical Analysis ODG. Dieren: Gender and Water Alliance

    Designing a Training Program

    A presentation which was held in Kabul during a workshop. It presents a way to make a training program and is divided in eight steps which help to improve a training program.

    SUDDERUDDIN, K. I. (2006): Designing a Training Program. Afghanistan: Singapore International Foundation URL [Accessed: 07.05.2012]

    Training of Trainers’ Manual on Community-driven Total Sanitation. Module 1: Guidance Note

    This manual is made for resource agencies engaged in training potential master trainers to facilitate and scale up community-driven total sanitation. This document facilitates the understanding of key concepts of community-driven total sanitation.

    WSP (2007): Training of Trainers’ Manual on Community-driven Total Sanitation. Module 1: Guidance Note. Washington, DC: Water and Sanitation Program URL [Accessed: 20.08.2010]

    Delivering Effective WASH Training

    This Trainer Manual is to support people who facilitate Delivering Effective WASH Training (DEWT). It is based on the practical experience of the CAWST, the Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology.

    CAWST (2015): Delivering Effective WASH Training. Alberta: Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology CAWST URL [Accessed: 19.08.2015]

    Planning a Training

    Further Readings

    Gender Mainstreaming: Practical Skills and Critical Analysis ODG

    This module is a guide to developing and implementing Training of Trainers (TOT) workshops. The overall objective of the module is to equip the participants with the knowledge and skills required to design and conduct practical training courses in mainstreaming gender in IWRM. The module is supposed to be used as a manual to be able to deliver culturally specific training of trainers.

    GWA (2003): Gender Mainstreaming: Practical Skills and Critical Analysis ODG. Dieren: Gender and Water Alliance

    Designing a Training Program

    A presentation which was held in Kabul during a workshop. It presents a way to make a training program and is divided in eight steps which help to improve a training program.

    SUDDERUDDIN, K. I. (2006): Designing a Training Program. Afghanistan: Singapore International Foundation URL [Accessed: 07.05.2012]

    Training of Trainers’ Manual on Community-driven Total Sanitation. Module 1: Guidance Note

    This manual is made for resource agencies engaged in training potential master trainers to facilitate and scale up community-driven total sanitation. This document facilitates the understanding of key concepts of community-driven total sanitation.

    WSP (2007): Training of Trainers’ Manual on Community-driven Total Sanitation. Module 1: Guidance Note. Washington, DC: Water and Sanitation Program URL [Accessed: 20.08.2010]

    Delivering Effective WASH Training

    This Trainer Manual is to support people who facilitate Delivering Effective WASH Training (DEWT). It is based on the practical experience of the CAWST, the Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology.

    CAWST (2015): Delivering Effective WASH Training. Alberta: Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology CAWST URL [Accessed: 19.08.2015]

    Developing an Agenda

    Further Readings

    Train the Trainer: Basic Training Guidelines

    An excellent training is nothing without an excellent trainer. This publication covers basic guidelines and tips to help improve your training skills. The following areas are covered: Preparation, Establishing Confidence, Setting the Tone, Facilitating Discussion, and Ending.

    ALAMEDA COUNTY PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT (2007): Train the Trainer: Basic Training Guidelines. Alameda: Alameda County Public Health Department

    Delivering Effective WASH Training

    This Trainer Manual is to support people who facilitate Delivering Effective WASH Training (DEWT). It is based on the practical experience of the CAWST, the Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology.

    CAWST (2015): Delivering Effective WASH Training. Alberta: Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology CAWST URL [Accessed: 19.08.2015]

    Marketing of a Training

    Further Readings

    How to Market Training to Your Workforce, Training growth Innovations

    This publication written by Johnson contains advice to some questions which Johnson was asked over several years. This includes the amount of workload which is necessary to achieve something and which activities help to gain most.

    JOHNSON, G.L. (2006): How to Market Training to Your Workforce, Training growth Innovations. TrainingIndustry.com URL [Accessed: 12.03.2010]

    Selection of Resource Persons

    Further Readings

    Selection of Participants

    Further Readings

    Teaching Adults

    The volunteers’ teaching series gives an insight to adult learning practices.

    DAUGHERTY, A.R. (1978): Teaching Adults. Oklahoma: Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Oklahoma State University URL [Accessed: 29.04.2010]

    Tools for Community Participation. A Manual for Training Trainers in Participatory Techniques

    This manual focuses on one approach to participatory training which PROWESS has applied in numerous projects and workshops. Intended primarily for the training of trainers in participatory techniques, it describes these techniques in a "how to" step-by-step fashion. This manual is also intended to be a "discussion starter" and delves into some of the political issues underlying participation and the often conflicting priorities of communities and development practitioners.

    SRINIVASAN, L. (1990): Tools for Community Participation. A Manual for Training Trainers in Participatory Techniques. New York: PROWESS/UNDP Technical Series

    Training Methodologies and Principles of Adult Learning

    A Training-of-Trainers manual to strengthen the capacity of a team of trainers by applying different training methodologies and principles of adult learning to the trainings of health service personnel, NGO staff and community-based health workers.

    TSHIULA, J. MARYANNE, S. J. (2005): Training Methodologies and Principles of Adult Learning. United States: United States Agency for International Development (USAID) URL [Accessed: 29.04.2010]

    A Facilitators Guide to Participatory Workshops with NGOs/CBOs Responding to HIV/AIDS

    This guide aims to support people who facilitate participatory workshops with non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and community-based organisations (CBOs) responding to HIV/AIDS in developing countries. It contains also some general information on workshop facilitation.

    USAID (2001): A Facilitators Guide to Participatory Workshops with NGOs/CBOs Responding to HIV/AIDS. United Kingdom: International HIV/AIDS Alliance URL [Accessed: 07.05.2012]

    Delivering Effective WASH Training

    This Trainer Manual is to support people who facilitate Delivering Effective WASH Training (DEWT). It is based on the practical experience of the CAWST, the Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology.

    CAWST (2015): Delivering Effective WASH Training. Alberta: Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology CAWST URL [Accessed: 19.08.2015]

    Planning Individual Sessions

    Further Readings

    Tools for Community Participation. A Manual for Training Trainers in Participatory Techniques

    This manual focuses on one approach to participatory training which PROWESS has applied in numerous projects and workshops. Intended primarily for the training of trainers in participatory techniques, it describes these techniques in a "how to" step-by-step fashion. This manual is also intended to be a "discussion starter" and delves into some of the political issues underlying participation and the often conflicting priorities of communities and development practitioners.

    SRINIVASAN, L. (1990): Tools for Community Participation. A Manual for Training Trainers in Participatory Techniques. New York: PROWESS/UNDP Technical Series

    Facilitation Handbook

    The Facilitation Handbook uses a particular approach to change processes, that builds on the idea of looking at social groups and institutions as complex systems. It contains various sections: starting with a brief general outline of how we believe we can deal with complex systems in a change context, it then draws practical conclusions on designing and delivering change events (such as workshops, meetings, conferences, …) – in particular in terms of the architecture of such events; it then creates an overview over methods and tools which allow to select and assemble them into a meaningful order that directs the event towards results.

    STEINLIN, M. WIDRIG JENKINS, C. (2010): Facilitation Handbook. Knowledge Sharing for Change. Designing and Facilitating Learning with a Transformational Impact. Cape Town: Ingenious Peoples Knowledge URL [Accessed: 07.05.2012]

    Training Methodologies and Principles of Adult Learning

    A Training-of-Trainers manual to strengthen the capacity of a team of trainers by applying different training methodologies and principles of adult learning to the trainings of health service personnel, NGO staff and community-based health workers.

    TSHIULA, J. MARYANNE, S. J. (2005): Training Methodologies and Principles of Adult Learning. United States: United States Agency for International Development (USAID) URL [Accessed: 29.04.2010]

    A Facilitators Guide to Participatory Workshops with NGOs/CBOs Responding to HIV/AIDS

    This guide aims to support people who facilitate participatory workshops with non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and community-based organisations (CBOs) responding to HIV/AIDS in developing countries. It contains also some general information on workshop facilitation.

    USAID (2001): A Facilitators Guide to Participatory Workshops with NGOs/CBOs Responding to HIV/AIDS. United Kingdom: International HIV/AIDS Alliance URL [Accessed: 07.05.2012]

    Preparing Fieldtrips

    Further Readings

    Logistics

    Further Readings

    Training the Trainer Resource Pack

    This resource pack is intended for anyone who wants some guidance or direction in planning, organising and delivering effective training for both professionals and support staff whatever their working or learning environment. The bulk of the pack addresses the various techniques for delivering training but it also covers the practical administrative tasks that are essential for successful training courses and which underpin the training content.

    CROCKET, M. FOSTER, J. (2005): Training the Trainer Resource Pack. France: International Council on Archives URL [Accessed: 19.05.2010]

    Quick-Guide to Events

    This is a complete guide on how to organise an event. Originally written for staff of the University of South Austraila, most of the tips and tricks are universal. There is also a corresponding website (http://www.unisa.edu.au/mdu/events/howto.asp) which contains a summary of the guide.

    UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA (2008): Quick-Guide to Events. Adelaide: University of South Austraila (UNISA) URL [Accessed: 29.11.2010]

    Delivering Effective WASH Training

    This Trainer Manual is to support people who facilitate Delivering Effective WASH Training (DEWT). It is based on the practical experience of the CAWST, the Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology.

    CAWST (2015): Delivering Effective WASH Training. Alberta: Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology CAWST URL [Accessed: 19.08.2015]

    Handouts Preparation

    Rich Pictures

    Case Studies

    Environment And Health In Chennai, India

    This paper presents an action-oriented program of research that adopts an ecosystem approach to human health in Chennai, India. Workshop participants developed a diagrammatic expression of environment and health in Chennai known as a ‘rich picture.’ Important themes in environment and health were drawn from this expression, such as: slums as locations of most vulnerable populations and objectionable conditions; surface water quality and water-borne disease (e.g., typhoid, cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery); public participation in management of environment and health problems; and malaria.

    BUNCH, M.J. SURESH, V.M. WILSON, D. FINNIS, B. KUMARAN, T. V. MURTHY, R. JERRET, M.J. (2003): Environment And Health In Chennai, India. An Ecosystem Approach To Managing The Urban Environment For Human Health. (= Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Environment and Health, Chennai, India, December 15-17, 2003 ). Toronto, Canada: York University URL [Accessed: 17.07.2012]

    Using Rich Pictures in Information Systems Teaching

    This study uses rich pictures In a university teaching environment which aims to encourage students to adopt deep learning (seeking meaning) approaches when learning about information systems. The use and reaction to rich pictures by third year university students are described and illustrated.

    HORAN, P. (2000): Using Rich Pictures in Information Systems Teaching. (= (=Proceedings of the first International Conference on Systems Thinking in Management, Geeling, Australia, November 8-10, 2000) ). University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University URL [Accessed: 30.06.2019]

    Sustainable Local Water Resource Management in Bangladesh

    The Environment Centre of the University of Leeds and BCAS jointly conducted the DFID-UK sponsored research project for a period of three years. Priority problems, potential solutions, and areas of conflicts over water resources were identified and then suitable strategies were determined. To clarify key problems in relation to gaining water by the major stakeholder groups, participatory exercises on integrated local water resources management were carried out, one technique being rich pictures.

    SOUSSAN, J. (2000): Sustainable Local Water Resource Management in Bangladesh. Meeting Needs and Resolving Conflicts. Leeds, England: School of the Environment, University of Leeds URL [Accessed: 17.07.2012]
    Further Readings

    Water Supply and Sanitation at Kisnyi Slum, Uganda– A Study on Institutional and Stakeholder Perspectives on the Major Issues

    This Master Thesis describes a field study that was conducted to understand the multiple perspectives on water and sanitation issues at the biggest slum (Kisnyi) in Kampala, Uganda. Soft Systems Methodology was used, including the drawing of a rich picture by stakeholders.

    BEREKET, N. (2009): Water Supply and Sanitation at Kisnyi Slum, Uganda– A Study on Institutional and Stakeholder Perspectives on the Major Issues. Master Thesis. Uppsala, Sweden: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences URL [Accessed: 30.06.2019]

    Visualizing Sustainable Landscapes

    This manual explores the various methods available for visualising social and environmental landscapes as a tool for understanding and negotiating conservation and development trade-offs in order to develop environmentally and socially sustainable solutions.

    IUCN (2012): Visualizing Sustainable Landscapes. Understanding and Negotiating Conservation and Development Trade-Offs Using Visual Techniques. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) URL [Accessed: 17.07.2012]

    The Rich Picture

    This article provides a comprehensive overview on the background, construction, and uses of rich pictures as a part of Soft Systems Methodology. While the focus is put on use of rich pictures in working environments, the information may be applied to other contexts as well.

    MONK, A. ; HOWARD, S. (1998): The Rich Picture. A Tool for Reasoning about Work Context. In: Interactions: Volume 5 , 12-30. URL [Accessed: 17.07.2012]

    Multi-Stakeholder Processes

    This short PowerPoint presentation gives an overview of rich picture creation and several examples of rich pictures drawn by groups of stakeholders in a workshop in Ghana.

    WAGENINGEN UR (2008): Multi-Stakeholder Processes. Ghana, 2008. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen University and Research Centre. [Accessed: 17.07.2012] PDF

    Creating a Learning Culture

    This PowerPoint presentation details methods in monitoring and evaluation as well as numerous techniques in participatory project planning, including a short section on rich pictures.

    WOODHILL, J. (2001): Creating a Learning Culture. An Overview of Key Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Concepts. Gland, Switzerland: The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) URL [Accessed: 17.07.2012]

    Icebreakers

    Further Readings

    Energisers

    Further Readings

    Adult Learning Principles

    Further Readings

    Principles of Adult Learning

    The website contains a brief discussion of the principles of adult learning, what motivates adult learners, and some tips to improve facilitation.

    LIEB, S. (1991): Principles of Adult Learning. Arizona: South Mountain Community College from VISION URL [Accessed: 07.05.2012]

    Adult Learning Principles

    Further Readings

    Principles of Adult Learning

    The website contains a brief discussion of the principles of adult learning, what motivates adult learners, and some tips to improve facilitation.

    LIEB, S. (1991): Principles of Adult Learning. Arizona: South Mountain Community College from VISION URL [Accessed: 07.05.2012]

    Facilitators Role

    Further Readings

    The Art of Facilitation

    This PDF-file explains different facilitations techniques as well as roles and responsibilities of effective facilitator.

    YOUNG, P. LANDALE, A. (1999): The Art of Facilitation. West Sussex: Learning Edge Consulting

    Core Roles of Facilitator

    This pdf-file concentrates on the difficulty of being neutral as a facilitator. It is built up as a session with main objectives and at the end of session the facilitators should be able to be neutral and know what to do in order to reach this goal. It is also good practice for refreshing the skills.

    RECOFTC (2002): Core Roles of Facilitator. Thailand: The International Association of Facilitators URL [Accessed: 17.05.2010]

    Delivering Effective WASH Training

    This Trainer Manual is to support people who facilitate Delivering Effective WASH Training (DEWT). It is based on the practical experience of the CAWST, the Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology.

    CAWST (2015): Delivering Effective WASH Training. Alberta: Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology CAWST URL [Accessed: 19.08.2015]

    Seating Arrangements

    Further Readings

    Setting Ground Rules

    Further Readings

    A tutor’s guide to teaching and learning at UQ

    Tutors guide made for teaching and learning at the university for adult students By University of Queens land explains various methods the tutors has to adopt in training adult students. It’s a self study guide for the tutors in the University.

    BATH, D. SMITH, C. (2004): A tutor’s guide to teaching and learning at UQ. The university of Queensland: TEDI Educational Technologies URL [Accessed: 08.05.2012]

    Train the Trainer: Basic Training Guidelines

    An excellent training is nothing without an excellent trainer. This publication covers basic guidelines and tips to help improve your training skills. The following areas are covered: Preparation, Establishing Confidence, Setting the Tone, Facilitating Discussion, and Ending.

    ALAMEDA COUNTY PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT (2007): Train the Trainer: Basic Training Guidelines. Alameda: Alameda County Public Health Department

    Facilitation Handbook

    The Facilitation Handbook uses a particular approach to change processes, that builds on the idea of looking at social groups and institutions as complex systems. It contains various sections: starting with a brief general outline of how we believe we can deal with complex systems in a change context, it then draws practical conclusions on designing and delivering change events (such as workshops, meetings, conferences, …) – in particular in terms of the architecture of such events; it then creates an overview over methods and tools which allow to select and assemble them into a meaningful order that directs the event towards results.

    STEINLIN, M. WIDRIG JENKINS, C. (2010): Facilitation Handbook. Knowledge Sharing for Change. Designing and Facilitating Learning with a Transformational Impact. Cape Town: Ingenious Peoples Knowledge URL [Accessed: 07.05.2012]

    Time Management

    Further Readings

    Train the Trainer: Basic Training Guidelines

    An excellent training is nothing without an excellent trainer. This publication covers basic guidelines and tips to help improve your training skills. The following areas are covered: Preparation, Establishing Confidence, Setting the Tone, Facilitating Discussion, and Ending.

    ALAMEDA COUNTY PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT (2007): Train the Trainer: Basic Training Guidelines. Alameda: Alameda County Public Health Department

    Time and Meeting Management

    This presentation describes in the first part how to manage your personal time in an efficient manner. In the second part the presentation focuses on how to manage time during a meeting.

    HEMING, R. (n.y): Time and Meeting Management. Barrie: United Way of Greater Simcoe County URL [Accessed: 17.05.2010]

    Facilitation Handbook

    The Facilitation Handbook uses a particular approach to change processes, that builds on the idea of looking at social groups and institutions as complex systems. It contains various sections: starting with a brief general outline of how we believe we can deal with complex systems in a change context, it then draws practical conclusions on designing and delivering change events (such as workshops, meetings, conferences, …) – in particular in terms of the architecture of such events; it then creates an overview over methods and tools which allow to select and assemble them into a meaningful order that directs the event towards results.

    STEINLIN, M. WIDRIG JENKINS, C. (2010): Facilitation Handbook. Knowledge Sharing for Change. Designing and Facilitating Learning with a Transformational Impact. Cape Town: Ingenious Peoples Knowledge URL [Accessed: 07.05.2012]

    Managing Flipcharts

    Managing Coloured Cards

    Further Readings

    Metaplan Basic Techniques

    This document gives detailed information about how to use coloured cards. You can gain a lot of ideas and practices by going through this guideline.

    METAPLAN GMBH (n.y.b) Metaplan Basic Techniques. Quickborn: Metaplan URL [Accessed: 07.07.2019]

    Innovative and participative learning-teaching approaches within a project based training framework

    This guideline about learning and teaching approaches includes a section about the card technique.

    TIPPELT, R. and AMORÓS, A. (2003): Innovative and participative learning-teaching approaches within a project based training framework. Beiträge aus der Praxis der beruflichen Bildung Nº3. Mannheim (Germany): Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH (InWent). [Accessed: 16.05.2011]

    Presentation Tricks

    Further Readings

    Open Gateways Curriculum for Teachers. Module 5: Slide show design and presentation tips

    This article is focused on how a presentation has to be designed graphically and what a presenter has to be aware of when creating presentation slides.

    SUN MICROSYSTEMS (2002): Open Gateways Curriculum for Teachers. Module 5: Slide show design and presentation tips. California: Sun Microsystems URL [Accessed: 18.04.2010]

    Delivering Effective WASH Training

    This Trainer Manual is to support people who facilitate Delivering Effective WASH Training (DEWT). It is based on the practical experience of the CAWST, the Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology.

    CAWST (2015): Delivering Effective WASH Training. Alberta: Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology CAWST URL [Accessed: 19.08.2015]

    World Café

    Further Readings

    The World Café. Catalyzing Large-Scale Collective Learning

    How did the idea of the World Café develop? A summary of the World Café inventor, Juanita Brown, about the history and the main aspects of the technique.

    BROWN, J. ; ISAACS, D. ; MARGULIES, N. ; WARHAFTIG, G. (1999): The World Café. Catalyzing Large-Scale Collective Learning . In: Leverage: News and Ideas for the Organizational Learner: Volume 33 , 1-2. URL [Accessed: 11.07.2012]

    Lectures

    Further Readings

    Exploring the training process

    Combined issue of the Health link Worldwide newsletters Aids Action, Child Health Dialogue and Disability Dialogue. Health link Worldwide no longer produces printed editions of its newsletters. However, this and other newsletters are available online at the Health link Worldwide website, www.healthlink.org.uk. Additionally, source material that partner organisations worldwide can adapt for use in their Newsletters will become available from the website in 2003.

    OXLADE, L. BREND, M. (2003): Exploring the training process. London: Healthlink Worldwide

    Group Works

    Further Readings

    Groups that work

    This article looks at the basics of group work and suggests ways to accelerate development. Normally, in a group, there are two main issues involved. The first issue includes the task. The second one concerns the process of the group work itself the mechanisms by which the group acts as a unit. This process is rarely addressed and is often forgotten, which can impede the success of group works.

    BLAIR, G.M. (n.y): Groups that work. URL [Accessed: 20.12.2010]

    What is group work?

    The author of this article gives an elaborate summary about how to do group works. He elaborates some definitions of key aspects and suggests areas which are held open for exploration.

    SMITH, M.K. (2008): What is group work? . INFED URL [Accessed: 20.12.2010]

    Discussions

    Further Readings

    Leading Discussions Tip Sheet

    This sheet concentrates on things to consider when actually leading a discussion. It helps finding adequate question for the best possible discussion outcome.

    THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY (n.y): Leading Discussions Tip Sheet. Tallahassee: The Florida State University – Centre for Teaching and Learning URL [Accessed: 19.04.2011]

    Role Plays

    Further Readings

    Team Role Play

    This article copied from the above link leads to a short overview which explains how a role play can be applied and how a role play works.

    BAUMGARTNER, J. (2001): Team Role Play. URL [Accessed: 14.12.2010]

    How to lead Roleplays

    This article describes the purpose of roleplays, as well as how to lead them in ten very illustrative steps.

    WOODROW, P. (n.y): How to lead Roleplays. Minneapolis: Training for change URL [Accessed: 14.12.2010]

    Training Evaluation

    Further Readings

    Evaluation cookbook

    This paper is a practical guide for lecturers interested in evaluating materials for their effectiveness in achieving specific learning objectives.

    HARVEY, J. (1998): Evaluation cookbook. UK: LTDI URL [Accessed: 14.04.2010]

    Approaches and Practices in Monitoring and Evaluation of Capacity Building within the WASH Sector

    This report of a group project by the University of Cranfield assesses the effectiveness of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in measuring progress along the results chain. The assessment is conducted by analysing different Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) approaches in the WASH sector and leads to recommendations for the Centre of Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST) to incorporate into their M&E approach.

    ABUBAKARI, Z. KUNIMOTO, S. NEILL, R. SUTCLIFFE, A. ZETEK, U. (2013): Approaches and Practices in Monitoring and Evaluation of Capacity Building within the WASH Sector. Group Project Report. Cranfield: Cranfield University and Center for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST)

    Certification

    Further Readings

    Report of the Training

    Further Readings

    Report Writing

    This document is a very detailed guideline about how to write a report.

    MULTIMEDIA PUBLISHING LTD (1975): Report Writing. URL [Accessed: 18.03.2011]

    Ecosan Expert Training Course for the Introduction of Ecological Sanitation in Bhutan

    This is a report about an ecosan expert course carried out by seecon international gmbh, WHO and UNICEF in 2009. It was published by WHO to make others aware of the outcomes of the training course, and contains detailed information on the course contents, its methodology, and outcomes.

    WHO (2009): Ecosan Expert Training Course for the Introduction of Ecological Sanitation in Bhutan. (= Training Course Report ). Geneva: World Health Organisation URL [Accessed: 12.01.2011]

    Approaches and Practices in Monitoring and Evaluation of Capacity Building within the WASH Sector

    This report of a group project by the University of Cranfield assesses the effectiveness of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in measuring progress along the results chain. The assessment is conducted by analysing different Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) approaches in the WASH sector and leads to recommendations for the Centre of Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST) to incorporate into their M&E approach.

    ABUBAKARI, Z. KUNIMOTO, S. NEILL, R. SUTCLIFFE, A. ZETEK, U. (2013): Approaches and Practices in Monitoring and Evaluation of Capacity Building within the WASH Sector. Group Project Report. Cranfield: Cranfield University and Center for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST)

    Training Follow-up

    Further Readings