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Welcome to the Perspective “Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India.” – NaWaKit.

The NaWaKit is the online platform containing all the key results of the Indo-European Project NaWaTech “Natural Water Systems and treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in urbanised areas in India”. The NaWaKit has been designed as a one-shop information tool for practitioners, such as local SMEs, service providers, entrepreneurs and consultants working in the water and sanitation sector in India, in order to guide them during the design, implementation, operation and maintenance of decentralised water and wastewater treatment system in urban India.

Module 1: NaWaTech Basics

This module contains an introduction to NaWaTech, including the current situation of the water management in India as well as the presentation of the NaWaTech approach. Furthermore, a list of 23 appropriate technologies for water supply and use, wastewater treatment, sludge treatment and water reuse/recharge for the Indian urban context are presented, including a set of examples in India and other parts of the world. Finally, this Module presents 6 case studies describing the project sites in Pune and Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.

Module 2: NaWaTech Business Development

This module presents a number of tools for the development of Business Models in the water and sanitation sector, such as the Business Model Canvas, the Blue Ocean Strategy and tools to scan the business environment. Furthermore, a second section contains a group of factsheets to support entrepreneurs while writing their business plan, considering marketing components, action plans, risk analysis and financial issues.

Module 3: A guide for successful NaWaTech Projects

This module presents the steps to follow to develop a NaWaTech Safety and Operation and Maintenance Plan, which allows to sustain infrastructure projects under the Indian urban conditions.

Module 1: NaWaTech Basics

India, home to over 1.2 billion people, is continuously growing and expanding its economics and standards of living. The rapid urbanisation,…
31 Factsheets
View Section

Module 2: NaWaTech Business Development

India is facing a water and sanitation crisis that might hinder the economical development of the nation, being water scarcity and pollution one of…
16 Factsheets
View Section

Module 3: A Guide to Successful NaWaTech Projects

Setting the foundation for the sustainability of a NaWaTech system starts right at the beginning of your project, during the first meetings with your…
3 Factsheets
View Section

Presentation Tricks

Independent of the business field or context your working in, possessing adequate skills in order to give a comprehensive presentation is crucial and…

Scanning the External Environment

Environmental scanning is a term commonly used in management, and we feel sometimes overwhelmed with numbers of methodologies such as PESTLE, STEP,…

Company Description

A company description consists of four essential elements: key success factors, core values, a vision statement and a mission statement. Key success…

Market Analysis

Businesses do not exist in isolation but have to be established in a market environment. At first, the industry sector in which the company operates…

Marketing

A company’s marketing mix most commonly consists of the “4Ps of marketing”: product, place, price and promotion. They are intricately and sensitively…

Competitors Analysis

Competitors present a major obstacle between a company and its targeted customer segments. In a competitor analysis, the relevant competitors have to…

Business Model Canvas

A business model describes how an organisation creates, delivers, and captures value. Framing a business model within the business model canvas,…

Business Plan Introduction

A business plan is an essential roadmap for business success. It describes the direction the company is taking, what its goals are, where it wants to…

Strategic Management

Strategic management comprises the decisions a company’s management concerning strategies that enhance the company’s competitive advantage and its…

Financial Management

Financial Management is a vital task for every company and should always draw the attention of an entrepreneur. This factsheet covers three distinct…

Blue Ocean Strategy

The Blue/Red Ocean Strategy is a way of assessing your business against your competitors in order to identify your competitive advantage. It is based…

Elevator Pitch

As an entrepreneur, you will need to be prepared to take every opportunity to gain interest in your start-up from potential customers, investors, or…

Partners & Network

Companies can enter into partnerships with different types of organisations and with varying intensity. Possible benefits from partnerships can be…

Risk Management

Entrepreneurs are by definition moderate risk takers and a strong risk management is an important source of competitive advantage for their…

Foundation - Legal Bodies

This factsheet contains an overview over the various forms of legal bodies for entrepreneurs wanting to start their business. The determination of…

The NaWaKit Perspective was developed by the NaWaTech Consortium as part of the NaWaTech Project, co-financed by the European Commission and the Science and Technology Department of the Indian Government (project duration: July 2012-June 2016).

The NaWaKit contains all the key results and gathered information of the R&D Project NaWaTech that aims at maximising the exploitation of natural and compact technical systems and processes for the effective management of municipal water resources in urbanised areas of India.

The NaWaKit has been designed to provide the needed technical and business strategy tools to support water practitioners when conceiving, launching and growing a new venture in the water and wastewater sector. Furthermore, this STEP presents key information about technological options for the implementation of appropriate technologies, as well as the results of the case studies implemented in Nagpur and Pune in Maharashtra, India.

Disclaimer

The NaWaKit reflects only the authors' views and not those of the European Community or Project Coordinator. This work may rely on data sources external to the members of the NaWaTech project Consortium. Members of the Consortium do not accept liability for loss or damage suffered by any third party as a result of errors or inaccuracies in such data. The information in this document is provided "as is" and no guarantee is given that the information is fit for any particular purpose. The user thereof uses the information at its sole risk and neither the European Community nor any member of the NaWaTech Consortiums is liable for any use that may be made of the information

The project NaWaTech “Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India” aims to explore, assess and enhance the potential of natural and compact technical water treatment systems, in order to improve their performance and reliability for the effective management of municipal water sources and to cope with water shortages in urban India.

An international team composed by 7 European partners, coordinated by the ttz-Bremerhaven and 7 indian partners, coordinated by NEERI work on the adaptation of different natural and compact water systems to the Indian context during the 3 year lifetime of NaWaTech.

NaWaTech Objectives

The specific objectives of NaWaTech are:

1. Assess the technical, financial and environmental potential of natural and technical water treatment technologies to cope with water shortages in urbanised areas in India.

2. Enhance the natural and technical water treatment systems for the production of recycled water to supplement water sources considering extreme climatic conditions and highly varying pollutions loads.

3. Disseminate, exploit and ensure the take- up in practice and mainstreaming of NaWaTech activities and outputs by key stakeholders.

4. Benefit SMEs in the water sector by supporting the development of a local market for innovative water treatment technologies, and to train the SMEs on the NaWaTech approach.

5. Establish foundations of a long-term cooperation between EU and India in water technologies.

NaWaTech's Workplan

A work plan, consisting on 6 Work Packages (WP) with research, demonstration, dissemination and training activities, has been designed and followed by the project consortium to achieve the proposed objectives:

WP1 “Assessment”is designed for the assessment of 23 potential natural and compacted water treatment systems(see Appropriate Technologies) to treat and reuse secondary urban water sources and to recharge primary water sources. A number of technology arrangements were selected for further development.

WP2 “Enhancement”is the research component of the project, in which a group of technologies and systems were enhanced in the frame of pilot-scale experiments. Furthermore, the operation and maintenance of the systems under the specific boundary conditions (local settings, organisations involved, etc.) was described within the framework of the NaWaTech Safety Plans (see Module 3).

WP3 “Development” consists on the implementation of 6 test sites in Nagpur and Pune (Maharashtra, India), in which arrangements of appropriate treatments (such as SBR, MBR, different constructed wetlands, anaerobic treatments, etc.) are being tested under urban Indian conditions (see chapter of case studies).

In WP4 “Community of Practice” a community of practice (CoP) was initiated bringing together all key stakeholders from research, industry and governmental bodies in Pune and Nagpur, Maharashtra – India. WP4 was also the framework for twinning a total of 14 MSc and PhD students from India, Austria, Germany and Spain.

Complementary to the above-described research and development activities, the WP5 “Dissemination and Training”has been designed for the production of dissemination materials and the offering of Indo-European Workshops in Barcelona, Spain (November 2013), Pune, India (April 2014), Vienna, Austria (November 2014) as well as the Final NaWaTech Conference in November 2015.

The WP6 “SME Promotion” is dedicated to the transfer of knowledge gathered to SMEs working in the water sector in India.

The following Pert Diagram shows the different Work Packages and their relationships.

NaWaTech Pert Diagram
The NaWaTech Pert Diagram

In order to achieve the objectives proposed by NaWaTech, a strategic team was brought together with a broad range of skills, scientific knowledge, technical abilities and proven experience in sustainable water resource management, as well as capacities on knowledge transfer and awareness rising. The NaWaTech consortium is constituted by seven partners from Europe (Austria, Germany, Spain, Italy and Switzerland) and seven partners from India, including research centres, universities, NGOs, governmental organisations, associations and SMEs.

NaWaTech is possible thanks to the financial support of:                           

Department of Science and Technology of the Government of India

www.dst.gov.in

Established in 1971, the DST has the objective of promoting new areas of Science and Technology and to act as a nodal department for organising, coordinating and promoting S&T activities in India.

          

European Commission, within its 7th Framework Programme for Research and Innovation

www.ec.europa.eu/research/fp7

The EC is the executive body of the European Union, and supports and fosters research through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technology Development. The seventh FP lasted from 2007 to 2013.

 

 

        

NaWaTech is a project coordinated by:  

National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI)

www.neeri.res.in

Established in 1958, NEERI is devoted to research and innovations in environmental science and engineering, besides solving a range of problems posed by industry, government and public in India.

 

     

Technology Transfer Centre Bremerhaven (TTZ)

www.ttz-bremerhaven.de

Established in 1987 in Bremerhaven, Germany, TTZ It is an innovative provider of technology transfer services and conducts customer-oriented trainings, research and development.

 

     
With the participation of:  

Ecosan Services Foundation

www.ecosanservices.org

Ecosan Services Foundation is a non-profit organisation based in Pune, India with a vast knowledge in the field of wastewater management and in stakeholder involvement.

 

     

University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU)

www.boku.ac.at

The Austrian University BOKU is active in education, applied science and research for water quality management. For this project, the Institute of Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control at the Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment is the main contributor.

 

     

Shrishti Eco-Research Institute

www.seriecotech.com

The Shrishti Eco-Research Institute started in 1995 in Pune, India with the aim of cleaning the environment with the help of natural technologies and eco-technologies to treat wastes.

 

    

IRIDRA Srl

www.iridra.eu/en/

IRIDRA S.r.l., founded in 1998 in Florence Italy, is a private consulting engineering firm composed by an interdisciplinary group of professionals specialised in environmental innovation in the field of water resource management.

 

     

Viraj Envirozing India Private Limited

www.virajenvirozing.com

IRIDRA S.r.l., founded in 1998 in Florence Italy, is a private consulting engineering firm composed by an interdisciplinary group of professionals specialised in environmental innovation in the field of water resource management.

 

     

Environmental Engineering and Microbiology Group (GEMMA), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC)

http://www.gemma.upc.edu/

The Group of Environmental Engineering and Microbiology (GEMMA) is located at the Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Spain dedicated primarily to education, research and transfer of knowledge in Environmental Engineering, particularly in the fields of environmental biotechnology, water supply, wastewater treatment and bioenergy generation.

 

     

Indian Water Works Association

www.iwwa.info

It is a voluntary body of professionals with Headquarters in Mumbai India concerned and connected with water supply for municipal, industrial, agricultural uses and treatment and disposal of wastewater.

 

     

BIOAZUL S.L

www.bioazul.com

BIOAZUL S. L. is a Spanish company that provides innovative technical and commercial solutions in the fields of environment, energy and water engineering, using knowledge and skills acquired through an extensive experience in different industrial sectors.

 

     

Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran

www.mahamjp.com

Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran was constituted in 1997 under the Maharashtra Water Supply and Sewerage Board for rapid development and proper regulation of Water Supply and Sewerage services in the State of Maharashtra, India.

 

    

seecon international gmbh

www.seecon.ch

seecon is a Swiss company with 16 years of experience in developing and implementing innovative projects, supporting the sustainable development of Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America.

 

    

Pune Municipal Corporation

www.punemunicipalcorporation.org

The Pune Municipal Corporation was established in 1950 as a semi-government body created for providing services to Pune city. PMC controls the whole administration of Pune and is in charge of the civic needs and infrastructure of the metropolis.

 

     

Kre_Ta Landscape Architecture

Kre_Ta is a creative SME, running an office for landscape architecture and urban planning in Berlin, Germany, focusing on sustainable and green urban designs with a strong focus to R&D projects in order to develop and design eco-innovative solutions.

 

     

For more information please visit: www.nawatech.net

NaWaTech Leaflet 1 page 1 / page 2

NaWaTech Leaflet 2 page 1 / page 2

NaWaTech Poster

The NaWaKit Perspective was developed by the NaWaTech Consortium as part of the NaWaTech Project, co-financed by the European Commission and the Science and Technology Department of the Indian Government (project duration: July 2012-June 2016).

The NaWaKit contains all the key results and gathered information of the R&D Project NaWaTech that aims at maximising the exploitation of natural and compact technical systems and processes for the effective management of municipal water resources in urbanised areas of India.

The NaWaKit has been designed to provide the needed technical and business strategy tools to support water practitioners when conceiving, launching and growing a new venture in the water and wastewater sector. Furthermore, this STEP presents key information about technological options for the implementation of appropriate technologies, as well as the results of the case studies implemented in Nagpur and Pune in Maharashtra, India.

Disclaimer

The NaWaKit reflects only the authors' views and not those of the European Community or Project Coordinator. This work may rely on data sources external to the members of the NaWaTech project Consortium. Members of the Consortium do not accept liability for loss or damage suffered by any third party as a result of errors or inaccuracies in such data. The information in this document is provided "as is" and no guarantee is given that the information is fit for any particular purpose. The user thereof uses the information at its sole risk and neither the European Community nor any member of the NaWaTech Consortiums is liable for any use that may be made of the information

The project NaWaTech “Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India” aims to explore, assess and enhance the potential of natural and compact technical water treatment systems, in order to improve their performance and reliability for the effective management of municipal water sources and to cope with water shortages in urban India.

An international team composed by 7 European partners, coordinated by the ttz-Bremerhaven and 7 indian partners, coordinated by NEERI work on the adaptation of different natural and compact water systems to the Indian context during the 3 year lifetime of NaWaTech.

NaWaTech Objectives

The specific objectives of NaWaTech are:

1. Assess the technical, financial and environmental potential of natural and technical water treatment technologies to cope with water shortages in urbanised areas in India.

2. Enhance the natural and technical water treatment systems for the production of recycled water to supplement water sources considering extreme climatic conditions and highly varying pollutions loads.

3. Disseminate, exploit and ensure the take- up in practice and mainstreaming of NaWaTech activities and outputs by key stakeholders.

4. Benefit SMEs in the water sector by supporting the development of a local market for innovative water treatment technologies, and to train the SMEs on the NaWaTech approach.

5. Establish foundations of a long-term cooperation between EU and India in water technologies.

NaWaTech's Workplan

A work plan, consisting on 6 Work Packages (WP) with research, demonstration, dissemination and training activities, has been designed and followed by the project consortium to achieve the proposed objectives:

WP1 “Assessment”is designed for the assessment of 23 potential natural and compacted water treatment systems(see Appropriate Technologies) to treat and reuse secondary urban water sources and to recharge primary water sources. A number of technology arrangements were selected for further development.

WP2 “Enhancement”is the research component of the project, in which a group of technologies and systems were enhanced in the frame of pilot-scale experiments. Furthermore, the operation and maintenance of the systems under the specific boundary conditions (local settings, organisations involved, etc.) was described within the framework of the NaWaTech Safety Plans (see Module 3).

WP3 “Development” consists on the implementation of 6 test sites in Nagpur and Pune (Maharashtra, India), in which arrangements of appropriate treatments (such as SBR, MBR, different constructed wetlands, anaerobic treatments, etc.) are being tested under urban Indian conditions (see chapter of case studies).

In WP4 “Community of Practice” a community of practice (CoP) was initiated bringing together all key stakeholders from research, industry and governmental bodies in Pune and Nagpur, Maharashtra – India. WP4 was also the framework for twinning a total of 14 MSc and PhD students from India, Austria, Germany and Spain.

Complementary to the above-described research and development activities, the WP5 “Dissemination and Training”has been designed for the production of dissemination materials and the offering of Indo-European Workshops in Barcelona, Spain (November 2013), Pune, India (April 2014), Vienna, Austria (November 2014) as well as the Final NaWaTech Conference in November 2015.

The WP6 “SME Promotion” is dedicated to the transfer of knowledge gathered to SMEs working in the water sector in India.

The following Pert Diagram shows the different Work Packages and their relationships.

NaWaTech Pert Diagram
The NaWaTech Pert Diagram

In order to achieve the objectives proposed by NaWaTech, a strategic team was brought together with a broad range of skills, scientific knowledge, technical abilities and proven experience in sustainable water resource management, as well as capacities on knowledge transfer and awareness rising. The NaWaTech consortium is constituted by seven partners from Europe (Austria, Germany, Spain, Italy and Switzerland) and seven partners from India, including research centres, universities, NGOs, governmental organisations, associations and SMEs.

NaWaTech is possible thanks to the financial support of:                           

Department of Science and Technology of the Government of India

www.dst.gov.in

Established in 1971, the DST has the objective of promoting new areas of Science and Technology and to act as a nodal department for organising, coordinating and promoting S&T activities in India.

          

European Commission, within its 7th Framework Programme for Research and Innovation

www.ec.europa.eu/research/fp7

The EC is the executive body of the European Union, and supports and fosters research through its Framework Programmes for Research and Technology Development. The seventh FP lasted from 2007 to 2013.

 

 

        

NaWaTech is a project coordinated by:  

National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI)

www.neeri.res.in

Established in 1958, NEERI is devoted to research and innovations in environmental science and engineering, besides solving a range of problems posed by industry, government and public in India.

 

     

Technology Transfer Centre Bremerhaven (TTZ)

www.ttz-bremerhaven.de

Established in 1987 in Bremerhaven, Germany, TTZ It is an innovative provider of technology transfer services and conducts customer-oriented trainings, research and development.

 

     
With the participation of:  

Ecosan Services Foundation

www.ecosanservices.org

Ecosan Services Foundation is a non-profit organisation based in Pune, India with a vast knowledge in the field of wastewater management and in stakeholder involvement.

 

     

University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU)

www.boku.ac.at

The Austrian University BOKU is active in education, applied science and research for water quality management. For this project, the Institute of Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control at the Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment is the main contributor.

 

     

Shrishti Eco-Research Institute

www.seriecotech.com

The Shrishti Eco-Research Institute started in 1995 in Pune, India with the aim of cleaning the environment with the help of natural technologies and eco-technologies to treat wastes.

 

    

IRIDRA Srl

www.iridra.eu/en/

IRIDRA S.r.l., founded in 1998 in Florence Italy, is a private consulting engineering firm composed by an interdisciplinary group of professionals specialised in environmental innovation in the field of water resource management.

 

     

Viraj Envirozing India Private Limited

www.virajenvirozing.com

IRIDRA S.r.l., founded in 1998 in Florence Italy, is a private consulting engineering firm composed by an interdisciplinary group of professionals specialised in environmental innovation in the field of water resource management.

 

     

Environmental Engineering and Microbiology Group (GEMMA), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC)

http://www.gemma.upc.edu/

The Group of Environmental Engineering and Microbiology (GEMMA) is located at the Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering of the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Spain dedicated primarily to education, research and transfer of knowledge in Environmental Engineering, particularly in the fields of environmental biotechnology, water supply, wastewater treatment and bioenergy generation.

 

     

Indian Water Works Association

www.iwwa.info

It is a voluntary body of professionals with Headquarters in Mumbai India concerned and connected with water supply for municipal, industrial, agricultural uses and treatment and disposal of wastewater.

 

     

BIOAZUL S.L

www.bioazul.com

BIOAZUL S. L. is a Spanish company that provides innovative technical and commercial solutions in the fields of environment, energy and water engineering, using knowledge and skills acquired through an extensive experience in different industrial sectors.

 

     

Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran

www.mahamjp.com

Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran was constituted in 1997 under the Maharashtra Water Supply and Sewerage Board for rapid development and proper regulation of Water Supply and Sewerage services in the State of Maharashtra, India.

 

    

seecon international gmbh

www.seecon.ch

seecon is a Swiss company with 16 years of experience in developing and implementing innovative projects, supporting the sustainable development of Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America.

 

    

Pune Municipal Corporation

www.punemunicipalcorporation.org

The Pune Municipal Corporation was established in 1950 as a semi-government body created for providing services to Pune city. PMC controls the whole administration of Pune and is in charge of the civic needs and infrastructure of the metropolis.

 

     

Kre_Ta Landscape Architecture

Kre_Ta is a creative SME, running an office for landscape architecture and urban planning in Berlin, Germany, focusing on sustainable and green urban designs with a strong focus to R&D projects in order to develop and design eco-innovative solutions.

 

     

For more information please visit: www.nawatech.net

NaWaTech Leaflet 1 page 1 / page 2

NaWaTech Leaflet 2 page 1 / page 2

NaWaTech Poster

India, home to over 1.2 billion people, is continuously growing and expanding its economics and standards of living. The rapid urbanisation, population growth, the technological and industrial boom are posing an enormous challenge to the water and sanitation situation of the country.

The flush-and-forget approach of the conventional sanitation systems does not offer a sustainable option to solve the sanitation crisis. As a consequence, only 21% of all the wastewater is ever treated, causing the contamination of 75% of all surface water across India. Innovative and unconventional technology solutions are required to improve the above situation. The NaWaTech project is one step further in this direction.

This Indo-European Project aims to explore, assess and enhance the potential of natural and compact water treatment systems in order to improve their performance and reliability in the urban Indian context. The NaWaTech concept is based on the use optimisation of the different urban water flows by treating each of these flows via a modular natural system, taking into account the different nature and degree of pollution. For more information about the NaWaTech approach, visit the section with more details here.

India is facing a water and sanitation crisis that might hinder the economical development of the nation, being water scarcity and pollution one of the most severe national-wide environmental problems. Traditionally, the water and sanitation sector in the country has been owned and operated by the government, however not being able to solve all the problems on its own, the government is encouraging the private sector to participate in this complex process through partnership programs and regulatory reforms. This opens a wide range of opportunities for business in the different areas of water management and sanitation.

Wastewater treatment in India has become an extremely important area of focus due to increasing health awareness and population pressure. Despite the wastewater sector witnessing major growth in the last decade due to increasing government support and private participation, the scale of the problem remains enormous. In India it is estimated that 22’900 MLD (million of litres per day) of domestic wastewater is generated from urban centres, while the installed treatment capacity available is only for 5'900 MLD. Thus, there is a huge gap in treatment of domestic wastewater. This scenario indicates how the wastewater treatment market in India has immense untapped potential.

This module presents a number of tools for the development of Business Models in the water and sanitation sector, in particular to commercialise wastewater treatment technologies and systems selected by the NaWaTech consortium. Furthermore, a second section contains a group of factsheets to support entrepreneurs while writing their business plan, considering marketing components, action plans, risk analysis and financial issues.

Setting the foundation for the sustainability of a NaWaTech system starts right at the beginning of your project, during the first meetings with your client and the first site visits. The process of ensuring the sustainability continues by means of a sound execution of the construction works and the timely and targeted planning of operation and maintenance to ensure that the client will maintain and operate the system correctly.

This NaWaKit module provides practice-oriented tips and tricks guiding you through the project phases to ensure that the NaWaTech systems are planned, designed and constructed keeping in mind the operation and maintenance needed to sustain them. This module is composed of 3 factsheets: Technology Selection and DesignImplementation of NaWaTech Projects and Safety and O&M Management.

Building the baseline for the fate of the whole project, the Technology Selection and Design factsheet describes principles for preparing a project and selecting the appropriate technologies. Moreover, critical aspects to be considered during the design are listed in this factsheet.

To be better prepared for managing the tendering and contracting, and for smoothing the construction and commissioning in the Indian context, practitioners have put together their lessons learnt in the factsheet Implementation of NaWaTech Projects.

The third factsheet, Safety and O&M Management introduces a “way-of-thinking for systematically preparing and managing operation and maintenance following seven planning steps. The reader will be guided to identify and prioritise critical O&M and monitoring activities and to prepare the necessary supporting materials, such as operator checklists, work plans for plant supervision and monitoring plans.

Business Model Development

Scanning the External Environment

Case Studies

The Environmental Scan: Identifying and classifying (external) factors

This document presents a methodology of how to scan the environment to identify the external factors that can affect the implementation of a project in Nepal.

TACSO (n.y): The Environmental Scan: Identifying and classifying (external) factors. Module 08 of the CSO Management Course. Sarajevo: Technical Assistance for Civil Society Organisations (TACSO) URL [Accessed: 08.10.2012]

Strategic Planning

This document presents a study case of how to carry out an “External Factor Analysis Summary” by evaluating the societal and industry environment of the production of agricultural products.

DOBBINS, C. (n.y): Strategic Planning. External Environmental Scanning. West Lafayette: Purdue University URL [Accessed: 08.10.2012]
Further Readings

Doing Environmental Scanning

This guide provides you with an overview of doing environmental scanning in your organisation. The aim is to allow you to build an understanding of the environmental scanning process and what is involved.

CONWAY, M. (2009): Doing Environmental Scanning. An Overview Guide. Hotham Hill, Australia: Thinking Futures URL [Accessed: 22.08.2012]

Environmental scanning

This web article contains a thorough list of references regarding environmental scanning, as well as concepts and theories developed in the last decades. It also contains an interesting analysis of the external environment of Higher Education, which could be used for those planning starting up a business in the training sector of water and sanitation.

MORRISON, J.L. (1992): Environmental scanning. In: WHITELY, M.A. ; PORTER, J.D. ; FENSKE, R.H. (1992): A primer for new institutional researchers. Tallahassee, Florida: 86-99. URL [Accessed: 22.08.2012]

Business Model Canvas

Blue Ocean Strategy

Further Readings

Blue Ocean Strategy in Asia. Case 2

This article evaluates a blue ocean strategy canvas for the mineral water industry in Asia. By using the strategy canvas, four actions were identified for companies to come out from red ocean, to make competition irrelevant.

ECO MAX (2012): Blue Ocean Strategy in Asia. Case 2. Eco Max Training and Learning Centre URL [Accessed: 16.01.2013]

Blue Ocean Strategy. How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make the Competition Irrelevant

This book gives a wealth of information about the Blue Ocean Strategy, examples, and guidance on using the strategy canvas to identify the competitive advantage in a business.

KIM, W.C. MAUBORGNE, R. (2005): Blue Ocean Strategy. How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make the Competition Irrelevant. Boston: Harvard Business School Press URL [Accessed: 13.01.2013]

Blue Ocean Strategy

This presentation discusses the theory behind the Blue Ocean Strategy as well as examples and statistics demonstrating successful business development in blue oceans.

ZOHAR, D. (n.y): Blue Ocean Strategy. SIMPLE Management Consulting: URL [Accessed: 16.01.2013]

Rainwater Harvesting

Further Readings

Rain Water Harvesting

The rapid development of cities and consequent population explosion in urban areas has led to depletion of surface water resources. For fulfillment of daily water requirement, indiscriminate pumping of ground water is being resorted to, leading to lowering of ground water table. At the same time the rain water is not being conserved which ultimately goes waste. To avoid this imbalance, conservation of rain water in the form of rain water harvesting is the only solution. Rain water harvesting can be effectively implemented in our office and residential complexes for conservation of rain water. The subject has assumed lot of significance in the present scenario. This has been included in Indian Railway Works Manual 2000 vide correction slip no. 10 dated 17.02.05 also. This publication is an attempt to compile all the relevant Information regarding various methods commonly in use. These methods can be used by field engineers for designing and implementing Rain Water Harvesting systems.

IRICEN (2006): Rain Water Harvesting. Pune: Indian Railways Institute of Civil Engineering (IRICEN) URL [Accessed: 16.03.2015]

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Retention Basin

Further Readings

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

Water pollution degrades surface waters making them unsafe for drinking, fishing, swimming, and other activities. As authorized by the Clean Water Act, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit program controls water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters of the United States. Point sources are discrete conveyances such as pipes or man-made ditches. Individual homes that are connected to a municipal system, use a septic system, or do not have a surface discharge do not need an NPDES permit; however, industrial, municipal, and other facilities must obtain permits if their discharges go directly to surface waters. In most cases, the NPDES permit program is administered by authorized states. Since its introduction in 1972, the NPDES permit program is responsible for significant improvements to our Nation's water quality.

EPA (2013): National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Washington: United States Environmental Protection Agency

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Bank Filtration

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Eco-Filtration Bank

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Water Saving Devices at Home

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Anaerobic Baffle Reactor

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Anaerobic Filter

Further Readings

The Application of Anaerobic Filter for Municipal Wastewater Treatment

This paper presents results of the lab-scale anaerobic filter and pilot-scale units of anaerobic baffled filter used for municipal wastewater treatment by low temperature.

BODIK, I. ; HERDOVA, B. ; KRATOCHVIL, K. (1999): The Application of Anaerobic Filter for Municipal Wastewater Treatment. In: Chemical Papers: Volume 54 , 159-164. URL [Accessed: 20.03.2015]

Development of an Improved Anaerobic Filter for Municipal Wastewater Treatment

Development of an improved reactor configuration of anaerobic filter was carried out for the elimination of clogging of filter media. The experiments over different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) indicated that the HRT of 12 h was the most appropriate one for the system studied while treating the municipal wastewater, which resulted 90% and 95% BOD and COD reduction, respectively. Reduction up to 95% in suspended solids concentration could be achieved without any pretreatment. The specific biogas yield obtained was 0.35 m3 CH4/kgCODr with 70% of CH4 content in the biogas generated from the system at the HRT of 12 h. Operational problems such as clogging of filter media were not observed throughout the period of study over 600 d.

BODKHE, S. (2008): Development of an Improved Anaerobic Filter for Municipal Wastewater Treatment. In: Bioresource Technology: Volume 99 , 222-226. URL [Accessed: 20.03.2015]

Feasibility Study of Upflow Anaerobic Filter for Pre-Treatment of Municipal Wastewater

Anaerobic reactors have been successfully installed in full-scale plants world-wide for treating high-strength industrial wastewater over the years. Recently, there has been significant interest in exploring this technology for treating low-strength domestic wastewater as well. Previously, it was thought that this was not practical as methane fermentative process was considered too slow to be able to treat the increasing volume of domestic sewage at a high rate. With technological advances and better understanding of anaerobic microbial characteristics in recent years, there is a potential that under control conditions, such barriers can be gradually overcome. The perspectives of using anaerobic pre-treatment for domestic sewage are discussed in this report to replace the conventional treatment methods. Feasibility of upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) in place of activated sludge process to pre-treat domestic wastewater is studied in this research.

KAVITHA K. (2009): Feasibility Study of Upflow Anaerobic Filter for Pre-Treatment of Municipal Wastewater. Master's Thesis. Singapore: Departement of Civil Engineering, National University Singapore URL [Accessed: 20.03.2015]

Treatment of Low Strength Domestic Wastewater Using the Anaerobic Filter

A laboratory scale anaerobic filter packed with synthetic high surface area trickling filter media was used to treat a low strength domestic wastewater averaging 288 mg 1−1 COD. The filter was operated for 60 days after reaching steady-state at 20, 25, 35°C at a loading rate of 0.02 lb COD ft−3 day−1 and 24 h hydraulic retention time. Filter effluent BOD5 averaged 38 mg 1−1 providing an average removal rate of 79%, and effluent COD averaged 78 mg 1−1, corresponding to a 73% removal rate. Removal efficiencies showed very little sensitivity to daily fluctuations in influent wastewater quality. The filter performance at 25 and 35°C was not significantly different, but BOD and TSS removal efficiency declined a: 20°C. Gas production averaged 0.027 ft−3 of gas per ft3 of influent wastewater, or 1.875 ft3 of gas per pound of influent COD. Gas composition averaged 30% nitrogen, 65% methane, and 5% carbon dioxide. Ammonia nitrogen and sulfides both increased during treatment. It is concluded that the anaerobic filter is a promising candidate for treatment of low strength wastewaters and that post treatment for sulfides and ammonia may be necessary.

KOBAYASHI, H.A. ; STENSTROM, M.K. ; MAH, R.A. (1983): Treatment of Low Strength Domestic Wastewater Using the Anaerobic Filter. In: Water Research: Volume 17 , 903-909. URL [Accessed: 20.03.2015]

Anaerobic Waste Treatment Fundamentals

This paper deals with the process of waste treatment that has not been too well understood and consequently has not been as widely used as it might deserve. Part One discusses the advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic waste treatment, conventional practices and the present concepts of the microbiology and chemistry involved. Parts Two and Three will cover the environmental requirements for achieving control of the anaerobic process and preventing or correcting toxicity in the system. Part Four will outline the application of these various concepts in treatment plant design.

MCCARTY, P.L. (1964): Anaerobic Waste Treatment Fundamentals. In: Public Works: Volume 95 URL [Accessed: 20.03.2015]

The Anaerobic Filter for Waste Treatment

An entirely new anaerobic treatment process has been found to be particularly effective for the treatment of low strength soluble organic wastes.

YOUNG, J.C. ; MCCARTY, P.L. (1969): The Anaerobic Filter for Waste Treatment. In: Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation), Research Supplement to:: Volume 41 , 160-173. URL [Accessed: 20.03.2015]

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

UASB

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Sequence Batch Reactor (SBR)

Further Readings

Intermittent Operation of the Extended Aeration Process for Small Systems

Most small wastewater treatment plants , which are based on the activated sludge or variants of the activated sludge process, are generally designed as smaller versions of large-scale plants but without primary settling facilities.

GORONSZY, M.S. (1979): Intermittent Operation of the Extended Aeration Process for Small Systems. In: Research Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation: Volume 51 , 274-287.

Use of Sequencing Batch Reactors for Waste Treatments - CPC International, Corpus Christi, Texas.

This paper represents a six month study of waste characterization and design criteria for effluent discharges from two widely different processes involved in the corn refining wet milling industry.

IRVINE, R.L. DAVIS, W.B. (1971): Use of Sequencing Batch Reactors for Waste Treatments - CPC International, Corpus Christi, Texas.. Engineering Extension Series No. 140. (= Proceedings of the 26th Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue University ). West Lafayette: Anna Arbor Science Publishers URL [Accessed: 23.03.2015]

Controlled Unsteady State Processes and Technologies

The mass of contaminants present in domestic and industrial wastewaters, in leachates, groundwaters, and in soils naturally varies with either time or space. These natural and sometimes severe variations are coupled with the uncertainties associated with direct exposure to the environment. In the face of such an unsteadystate behavior, facilities used for the removal of contaminants are often designed with the potentially unrealistic expectation that they can be operated as steady-state systems.

IRVINE, R.L. ; WILDERER, P.A. ; FLEMMING, H.C. (1997): Controlled Unsteady State Processes and Technologies. An Overview. In: Water Science and Technology: Volume 35 , 1-10. URL [Accessed: 23.03.2015]

Sequencing Batch Reactor

M/s.Magarpatta Township Development And Construction Co. Ltd has entrusted the prestigious job of Sewage Treatment Plant for their township with Sequential Batch Reactor technology for 3000 cu.m/day. The treated water is used for lake recharge and secondary uses.

KWAN (2013): Sequencing Batch Reactor. Maharashtra: Environmental Solutions India Pvt. Ltd. URL [Accessed: 11.05.2013]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. LUETHI, C. MOREL, A. ZURBRUEGG, C. SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010] PDF

A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for SIDS in the Caribbean Region

This directory is part of UNEP collaboration with SIDS on the implementation of the Waste Management chapter of the Barbados Programme of Action. It focuses primarily on proven sound environmental technologies for solid, liquid and hazardous waste management plus those currently successfully being used in SIDS within the Caribbean Region.

UNEP (2004): A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for SIDS in the Caribbean Region. Nairobi: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP-GPA)) and Caribbean Environmental Health Institute (CEHI)

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Membrane Bioreactor

Further Readings

Viability of Membrane Bioreactor Technology as an Advanced Pre-Treatment for Onsite Wastewater Treatment

This master thesis was a part of a research program at Colorado School of Mines. The objectives are threefold. Initially, the purposes were to increase the state of the knowledge using MBR in wastewater treatment and evaluate a pilot-scale MNR during start-up and steady state conditions, in respect of nutrient and organic compounds removal and overall system performance. A second objective was to evaluate the performance of the MBR during different stress conditions (power failure, high loading rate and high flux) in respect of nutrient and organic compounds removal and overall system performance. A third objective was to investigate permeate quality with respect of nutrients and organic compounds after infiltration through soil columns. The purpose was to assess if the effluent quality was suitable for direct discharge into the underlying groundwater or surface water.

LARSSON, E. PERSSON, J. (2004): Viability of Membrane Bioreactor Technology as an Advanced Pre-Treatment for Onsite Wastewater Treatment. (= Master Thesis ). Lulea: University of Technology URL [Accessed: 03.06.2019]

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

MBBR

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Vertical Gardens

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Non-Planted Filters

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Horizontal Flow Constructed Wetlands (HFCW)

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Vertical Flow Constructed Wetland (VFCW)

Further Readings

Constructed Wetlands: A Promising Wastewater Treatment system for Small Localities. Experiences from Latin America

This report provides an overview of how constructed wetlands serve as natural wastewater treatment systems. It focuses especially on the subsurface horizontal flow type—a technology that has high potential for small and medium-size communities because of its simplicity, performance reliability, and low operation and maintenance requirements. The ability of this wetland to reduce pathogens renders the effluent suitable for irrigation of certain crop species if additional health and environmental protection measures are taken. This report describes several experiences with constructed wetland schemes in Central and South America: a full-scale pilot plant in Nicaragua, a community-managed constructed wetland scheme in El Salvador, and other systems in Colombia, Brazil, and Peru.

GAUSS, M. WSP (2008): Constructed Wetlands: A Promising Wastewater Treatment system for Small Localities. Experiences from Latin America. Washington D.C.: The World Bank URL [Accessed: 12.12.2011]

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Hybrid Constructed Wetland

Further Readings

Constructed Wetlands Manual

This manual has been prepared as a general guide to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic wastewater as well as introduction to the design of constructed wetland for sludge drying.

UN-HABITAT (2008): Constructed Wetlands Manual. Kathmandu: UN-HABITAT, Water for Asian Cities Program URL [Accessed: 15.02.2012]

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Aerated Engineering Wetland

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Sludge Drying Bed

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Soil Aquifer Treatment

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Short Rotation Coppice

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Surface Groundwater Recharge

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Subsurface Groundwater Recharge

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Company Description

Further Readings

Market Analysis

Further Readings

Conduct a Market Analysis

This document is a guideline on how to conduct a market analysis, including different methods for data gathering and analysis.

VIRTUAL ADVISOR (2009): Conduct a Market Analysis. Virtual Advisor Inc URL [Accessed: 16.12.2015]

Marketing

Further Readings

Marketing and the 7Ps

Descriptions on what marketing is comprised of, why marketing is important, the 7Ps of marketing, marketing strategy planning and future trends in marketing.

CIM (2009): Marketing and the 7Ps. The Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM)

Introductory Guide to Sanitation Marketing

This Guideline, developed by the WSP, is a toolkit for practitioners to define sanitation marketing and key components of a sanitation marketing initiative and provide an overall framework for scaling up rural sanitation programs using a marketing approach.

DEVINE, J. ; KULLMANN, C. (2011): Introductory Guide to Sanitation Marketing. In: Water and Sanitation Program: Toolkit: URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Sanitation Marketing: A handbook for Sanitation Managers and Private Sector Players

This handbook outlines key facts about sanitation marketing, a step-by-step approach to development and implementation of a sanitation marketing project and also suggested key references for further reading for a wide range of audiences but more specifically, policy makers, program managers, business entrepreneurs in sanitation, financial institutions and behavioral change communication specialists.

NABEMBEZI, D. NABUNYA, H. (n.y): Sanitation Marketing: A handbook for Sanitation Managers and Private Sector Players. Ministry of Health Uganda and PLAN Uganda URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Competitors Analysis

Further Readings

Competitive Analysis

A guideline on how to conduct a competitors analysis.

SAASNET (n.y): Competitive Analysis. Understanding Your Competition. State Association of Addiction Services (SAAS) URL [Accessed: 16.12.2015]

Business Plan Introduction

Further Readings

Example Sandwich Co

An example business plan for the fictitious Example Sandwich Co.

LLOYDS TSB (2009): Example Sandwich Co. Business Plan. SAGE in Association with LLOYD TSB COMMERCIAL URL [Accessed: 16.12.2015]

How to Prepare Your Business Plan

An extensive guideline on how to write a business plan. It includes general information on business plans and detailed chapters on the components of business plans.

UNCTAD (2002): How to Prepare Your Business Plan. Geneva: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) URL [Accessed: 16.12.2015]

Partners & Network

Further Readings

Partnership Relationship Management

This paper discusses the characteristics of effective partnership relationships and presents an outline for implementing a plan for success. It also provides a Relational Survey to help determine a partnership’s state of health and provides a Partner Relationship Management Assessment, both as tools for determining an organization’s starting point in relationship management.

DENT, S. M. (2006): Partnership Relationship Management. In: Partnering Intelligence White Paper: URL [Accessed: 17.12.2015]

Risk Management

Further Readings

CoEP Hostel and MJP

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Wastewater Reuse in an Urban College Hostel Pune, Maharashtra, India

This document present a detailed description of the case study implemented at the College of Engineering of Pune and MJP, including history of the project, design information, materials and project components, costs and economics, and details about operation and maintenance, practical information and lessons learnt.

BRESCIANI, R. (2015): Wastewater Reuse in an Urban College Hostel Pune, Maharashtra, India. In: Case Study of the NaWaTech Project:

Vertical Gardens for greywater treatment and recycling in dense urban areas: a case-study in Pune

The paper describes the pilot installation of a vertical garden treating greywater from an office building in Pune, Maharashtra State.

MASI, F. ; BRESCIANI, A. ; RIZZO, A. ; EDATHOOT, N. ; PATWARDHAN, D. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; PANSE, D. (2015): Vertical Gardens for greywater treatment and recycling in dense urban areas: a case-study in Pune. In: IWA Water and Development Congress & Exhibition 2015:

Green architecture and water reuse: examples from different countries

This paper shows different examples from different countries (Italy, India and Tanzania) of green architectural solutions (green wall, green roof, roof wetland) in which water (rain and treated greywater) are reused as a resource, in order to reduce the use of drinking water for activities not needed a quality of water.

MASI, F. ; RIZZO A. (2015): Green architecture and water reuse: examples from different countries. In: Sustainable Sanitation Practice : Volume 23 , 4-10.

Ordnance Factory - Nagpur

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment. Part A: Engineering

This manual is part A of the updated manuals on sewerage and sewage treatment, prepared by the Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), a department under the Ministry of Urban Development, India. These manuals aim at meeting the professional needs of practising engineers dealing with the sanitation sector in the country that focuses on achieving the goal of 'sanitation for all' within a reasonable timeframe. Part A of the manual is on Engineering aspects related to sewerage system.

CPHEEO (2012): Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment. Part A: Engineering. New Delhi: The Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India URL [Accessed: 04.02.2013]

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse at the Ordnance Factory Ambajhari, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

This document present a detailed description of the case study implemented at the Ordnance Factory Ambajhari, Nagpur, including history of the project, design information, materials and project components, costs and economics, and details about operation and maintenance, practical information and lessons learnt.

LABHASETWAR, P. ; POPHALI, G. (2015): Wastewater Treatment and Reuse at the Ordnance Factory Ambajhari, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. Case Study. In: NaWaTech project:

AMANORA Park Town - Pune

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

The Economics of Municipal Sewage Water Recycling and Reuse in India

This interesting article discusses the opportunities of reusing sewage treated water in cities in India, describing as well the different technologies available (including SBR) and the costs related to the production of sewage treated water.

HINGORANI, P. (2011): The Economics of Municipal Sewage Water Recycling and Reuse in India. In: India Infrastructure Report: , 312-322.

Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management"

Technical information on environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment.

UNEP ; MURDOCH UNIVERSITY (2004): Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management". The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP/GPA), Coordination Office

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Amanora Park Town, Pune, Maharashtra, India

This document present a detailed description of the case study implemented at Amanora Park, including history of the project, design information, materials and project components, costs and economics, and details about operation and maintenance, practical information and lessons learnt.

ZAPATA, P. (2015): Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Amanora Park Town, Pune, Maharashtra, India. Case Study. In: NaWaTech Project:

Dayanand Park - Nagpur

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Dayanand Park, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

This document present a detailed description of the case study implemented at Dayanand Park, including history of the project, design information, materials and project components, costs and economics, and details about operation and maintenance, practical information and lessons learnt.

GARFI, M. (2015): Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Dayanand Park, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. Case Study. In: NaWaTech Project:

Constructed Wetlands Manual

This manual has been prepared as a general guide to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic wastewater as well as introduction to the design of constructed wetland for sludge drying.

UN-HABITAT (2008): Constructed Wetlands Manual. Kathmandu: UN-HABITAT, Water for Asian Cities Program URL [Accessed: 15.02.2012]

Indradhanushya Museum - Pune

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Ecotechnological Applications for the Control of Lake Pollution

This paper explains different ecotechnologies, such as soil scape filter, Hydrasch Succession Pond, Stream Ecosystem, Phytofiltration and Biox Process and Green Bridge Technology, which apply ecological principles, harnessing the living components of detritus food chain – bacteria, fungi, micro-invertebrates are found to be effective in the treatment of wastes.

JOSHI, S. ; JOSHI, S. (2008): Ecotechnological Applications for the Control of Lake Pollution. In: Proceedings of Taal2007: The 12th World Lake Conference: , 864-867.

Physicochemical and biological processes of wastewater irrigation and land treatment

This paper describes the different physicochemical properties of soils, and their organic and inorganic constituents that allow for degradation of pollutants present in wastewater.

JOSHI, S. ; JOSHI, S. ; KUBER, B. (2002): Physicochemical and biological processes of wastewater irrigation and land treatment. First Workshop on Reuse of Treated Wastewater and Sludge for Agriculture in South Asia. In: Proceedings of International Work Plan of GWP – SASTAC on Reuse of City Effluents :

ILBM Impact Story - Ecological Restoration of Highly Polluted Stretch of Ahar River, Udaipur and Ecological Improvement of Udaisagar Lake, Rajasthan, India

Ecological restoration of Ahar River in Udaipur and the subsequent improvement of Udaisagar Lake have together become a landmark in the application of ILBM principles to successfully convert an aerobically dead river into a living lotic system. This was initiated in the ILBM meeting organized in August 2009 and then within 63 days the ecotechnological Green Bridge system was developed after getting four of the pillars – policy, institutions, finance and public participation to support knowledge and technology pillars to revitalize a terminal lake – Udaisagar Lake by treating the wastewaters flowing through the Ahar River.

KODARKAR, M. JOSHI, S. (n.y): ILBM Impact Story - Ecological Restoration of Highly Polluted Stretch of Ahar River, Udaipur and Ecological Improvement of Udaisagar Lake, Rajasthan, India. URL [Accessed: 19.03.2015]

Presentation Tricks

Further Readings

Open Gateways Curriculum for Teachers. Module 5: Slide show design and presentation tips

This article is focused on how a presentation has to be designed graphically and what a presenter has to be aware of when creating presentation slides.

SUN MICROSYSTEMS (2002): Open Gateways Curriculum for Teachers. Module 5: Slide show design and presentation tips. California: Sun Microsystems URL [Accessed: 18.04.2010]

Delivering Effective WASH Training

This Trainer Manual is to support people who facilitate Delivering Effective WASH Training (DEWT). It is based on the practical experience of the CAWST, the Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology.

CAWST (2015): Delivering Effective WASH Training. Alberta: Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology CAWST URL [Accessed: 19.08.2015]

Strategic Management

Further Readings

What is Strategic Management

This textbook chapter gives a good introduction to strategic management issues.

DOBSON, P.W. STARKEY, K. RICHARDS, J. What is Strategic Management. In: DOBSON, P.W. ; STARKEY, K. ; RICHARDS, J. ; (2004): Strategic Management: Issues and Cases, 2nd Edition. 1-17. URL [Accessed: 16.12.2015]

The Value Chain

This document provides a comprehensive description of Porter's value chain.

RECKLIES, D. (2001): The Value Chain. In: FAO User Uploads: URL [Accessed: 16.12.2015]

Financial Management

Further Readings

Business Builder 4. How to Prepare a Cash Flow Statement

Before handling a cash budget yourself you should understand the cash flow in your company. This report gives an overview over cash flow and the components in a cash flow statement. Further, it gives you advice on how to prepare a cash flow statement, as well as explaining two methods for constructing the statement. It closes with a chapter on analysing a cash flow statement.

ZIONS BANK (2005): Business Builder 4. How to Prepare a Cash Flow Statement. In: Zions Business Resource Center: URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Elevator Pitch

Further Readings

Win the Business With This Elevator Pitch

This article published by the Harvard Business Review gives some important pointers when it comes to talking style and being convincing with your elevator pitch, accompanied by an examples of both an ineffective and an effective elevator pitch.

MARTIN, S.W. (2012): Win the Business With This Elevator Pitch. Cambridge: Harvard Business Review URL [Accessed: 14.01.2013]

The Perfect (Elevator) Pitch

This Business Week article describes some key aspects of a good elevator pitch and how to create it, rehearse it, and tailor it for a specific audience.

PINCUS, A. (2007): The Perfect (Elevator) Pitch. New York: Bloomberg L.P. URL [Accessed: 14.01.2013]

Foundation - Legal Bodies

Further Readings

Doing Business in India

This guide provides an overview of doing business in India, with chapters on conducting businesses in India, audit and accountancy, human resources and employment law, trade and banking in India.

HSBC PWC (2013): Doing Business in India. Mumbai: PrivewaterhouseCoopers URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Technology Selection and Design

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment

Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment. The major topics covered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment, reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics, conversion of organic and inorganic matter, sedimentation, aeration.

SPERLING, M. von (2007): Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment. (= Biological Wastewater Treatment Series , 2 ). London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal

Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. This book covers the following topics: wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents), impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes, overview of wastewater treatment systems, complementary items in planning studies.

SPERLING, M. von (2007): Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal. (= Biological Wastewater Treatment Series , 1 ). London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.

TILLEY, E. ULRICH, L. LUETHI, C. REYMOND, P. ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014] PDF

Wastewater Treatment Options

This Technical Brief reviews some of the options for wastewater treatment in low- and middle-income communities. It should be used as a guide to the main options available.

WELL (n.y): Wastewater Treatment Options. (= WELL Technical Briefs , 64 ). Loughborough: Water and Environmental health at London and Loughborough (WELL) URL [Accessed: 26.05.2019]

Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition

This book is one of the most fundamental and important books that defined the concept of ecological sanitation. The first version came out in 1998 - this version presents the findings of over ten years of research and development in ecological sanitation supported by SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency).

WINBLAD, U. SIMPSON-HERBERT, M. (2004): Ecological Sanitation - revised and enlarged edition. (pdf presentation). Sweden: Stockholm Environment Institute URL [Accessed: 04.08.2010]

Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid

This Sanitation Sourcebook distils some of the core concepts of sanitation in a user-friendly format so that the book can serve as a practical reference to sanitation professionals and investment decision-makers, particularly the local governments. The annexe contains a practical collection of factsheets on selected sanitation system options.

WSP (2007): Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid. pdf presentation. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). URL [Accessed: 01.06.2019]

Implementation of NaWaTech Projects

Further Readings

Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India

The Compendium of NaWaTech Technologies presents appropriate water and wastewater technologies that could enable the sustainable water management in Indian cities. It is intended as a reference for water professionals in charge of planning, designing and implementing sustainable water systems in the Indian urban scenario, based on a decentralised approach.

BARRETO DILLON, L. ; DOYLE, L. ; LANGERGRABER, G. ; SATISH, S. ; POPHALI, G. (2013): Compendium of Natural Water Systems and Treatment Technologies to cope with Water Shortages in Urbanised Areas in India. Berlin: EPUBLI GMBH URL [Accessed: 11.12.2015]

Tender Document for a Natural Wastewater Treatment System for COEP Campus

This document can be used as an example of a tender document that was produced for the NaWaTech pilot plant involving anaerobic treatment and vertical flow constructed wetlands implemented at the COEP campus in Pune, India.

COEP CAMPUS OF ENGINEERING (2015): Tender Document for a Natural Wastewater Treatment System for COEP Campus. In: Tender Document produced during NaWaTech project:

Tendering process in India

This one-page document gives a brief overview of the six steps (Preparation of Estimate, Pre Bid Conference, Notice Inviting Tender, Tender Document, Opening of Tenders and Award of Contracts) and associated activities/contents to be followed in open tenders in India.

EDATHOOT A. (2015): Tendering process in India. An Overview. In: Project document based on the subsequent two reading materials :

Safety and O&M Planning

Case Studies

Application of the NaWaTech safety and O&M planning approach for resources-oriented wastewater treatment systems in Pune, India

This case study describes safety and O&M planning activities carried out for SBR and MBR systems at a NaWaTech project site in Amanora Park Town Pune and for the NaWaTech project site at COEP Campus Pune involving anaerobic treatment in combination with Vertical Flow Constructed Wetlands.

NICOLICS, S. ; EDATHOOT, A. ; PATWARDHAN, N. ; STARIBACHER, E. ; MASI, F. ; CABALLERO, A. ; PANSE, D. ; LABHASETWAR, P.K. ; MEINHOLD, K. ; LANGERGRABER, G. (2015): Application of the NaWaTech safety and O&M planning approach for resources-oriented wastewater treatment systems in Pune, India. In: Oral presentation at the IWA Water and Development Congress "Water Security for Sustainable Growth":

Application of the NaWaTech safety and O&M planning approach re-use oriented wastewater treatment lines at the Ordnance Factory Ambajhari, Nagpur, India

This case study describes safety and O&M planning activities carried out for the NaWaTech project site at Ordnance Factory Ambajhari.

NICOLICS, S. ; HEWITT, D. ; POPHALI, G.R. ; MASI, F. ; NAGARNAIK, P. ; PANSE, D. ; LABHASETWAR, P.K. ; MEINHOLD, K. ; LANGERGRABER, G. (2015): Application of the NaWaTech safety and O&M planning approach re-use oriented wastewater treatment lines at the Ordnance Factory Ambajhari, Nagpur, India. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop "Nutrient Cycling and Retention in Natural and Constructed Wetlands":
Further Readings

NaWaTech Safety Planning

This template document was prepared and used during the NaWaTech project to support hazard identification and the identification of respective prevention (“control measures”) and monitoring measures as well as for starting discussions on general trouble-shooting procedures for 31 technologies and supporting equipment implemented under the NaWaTech project.

NICOLICS, S. ; LANGERGRABER, G. (2015): NaWaTech Safety Planning. Working document. In: NaWaTech project: