Double Ventilated Improved Pit (VIP)

Compiled by:
Eawag (Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology), Beat Stauffer (seecon international gmbh)
Adapted from:
TILLEY, E.; ULRICH, L.; LUETHI, C.; REYMOND, P.; ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014)

Executive Summary

Ventilated improved pit toilets (VIP), are, like single pit latrines, among the simplest and cheapest toilet system. A vent pipe is added which reduces fly nuisances and odour, if the VIP is well designed. Due to soil infiltration, there is danger of groundwater contamination, especially in densely populated areas. The double VIP has almost the same design as the single VIP with the added advantage of a second pit that allows it to be used continuously and permits safer and easier emptying.

In Out

Urine, Faeces, Excreta, Blackwater, Dry Cleansing Materials Anal Cleansing Water

Sludge, Compost/Biosolids

Introduction

The design of a VIP is nearly the same as a normal pit latrine – made of a superstructure, a pit cover slab and a hole for defecation. Different is only the ventilation pipe, provided with a durable fly screen on the top (SANIMAS 2005). Despite their simplicity, well-designed VIPs can be completely smell-free. The ventilation also allows odours to escape and minimises the attraction for flies (TILLEY et al., 2008). Flies that hatch in the pit are attracted to the light at the top of the ventilation pipe. When they fly towards the light and try to escape they are trapped by the fly-screen and die. The superstructure must be kept sufficiently dark, that the flies leave the pit through the pipe and not through the squat hole. A small gap above the door or a louvre in the door allows the air to enter. The flow of air is increased if the doorway of the superstructure faces the prevailing wind (WHO 1992). In comparison with other toilet systems such as UDDTs, composting toilets, twin-pits for pour flush, terra preta toilets, arborloo or fossa alterna), the treatment processes are limited (EAWAG/SANDEC 2008; TILLEY et al. 2008). The VIP needs no water for its function. This is a big advantage in water scarce areas in comparison with flush toilets (see flush toilets, pour flush toilets or low-flush toilets).

The VIP design can be used for both single and double pits. Single pits need to be emptied or relocated when full. By using two pits, one pit can be used, while the content of the second rests, drains, reduces in volume, and degrades. When the second pit is almost full (the excreta is 50 cm from the top of the pit), it is covered, and the content of the first pit is removed. Due to the extended resting time (at least 1 or 2 years after several years of filling), the material within the pit is partially sanitized and humus-like.

Design Considerations

 LUETHI et al. (2013)

Raised double VIP in a slum area of Kampala, Uganda. Source: LUETHI et al. (2013)

The superstructure may either extend over both holes or it may be designed to move from one pit to the other. In either case, the pit that is not being filled should be fully covered and sealed to prevent water, garbage and animals, or people from falling into the pit. The ventilation of the two pits can be accomplished using one ventilation pipe moved back and forth between the pits, or each pit can be equipped with its own dedicated pipe. The vent pipe should have an internal diameter of at least 110 mm to a maximum of 150 mm and reach more than 300 mm above the highest point of the toilet superstructure. It can be made out of PVC, bricks, pet bottles or iron pipes. The vent works better in windy areas but where there is little wind, its effectiveness can be improved by painting the pipe black; the heat difference between the pit (cool) and the vent (warm) creates an updraft that pulls the air and odours up and out of the pit. To test the efficacy of the ventilation, a small, smoky fire can be lit in the pit; the smoke should be pulled up and out of the vent pipe and not remain in the pit or the superstructure. The mesh size of the fly screen must be large enough to prevent clogging with dust and allow air to circulate freely (TILLEY et al. 2008). The two pits in the double VIP are continually used and should be well lined and supported to ensure longevity. Pits designed to last 25 to 30 years are not uncommon and a design life of 15 to 20 years is perfectly reasonable. The longer a pit lasts, the lower will be the average annual economic cost and the greater the social benefits from the original input (WHO 1992). The depth of the pit is at least 2 m, but usually more than 3 m (UNEP 2002). The depth is usually limited by the groundwater table or rocky underground.

A urine diversion slab could be added to collect and store urine and reuse it in agriculture. If the emptied faecal sludge is composted it may be also reused in agriculture.

         TILLEY et al. 2014

Schematic of a double ventilated improved pit. Source: TILLEY et al. (2014)        

Health Aspects/Acceptance

The double VIP can be a very clean, comfortable and well accepted sanitation option, in some cases even more so than a water-based technology. However, some health concerns exist:

Costs Considerations

VIPs are slightly more expensive than normal pit latrines. The construction needs some extra material (e.g. the vent pipe) and it should be noted that a ventilated design needs a roofed and darkened superstructure. Furthermore, costs for emptying (see human powered and motorised) the pits need to be considered. It should not be a problem to build de VIP with local material (WHO 1992).

Operation & Maintenance

To keep the double VIP free of flies and odours, regular cleaning and maintenance is required. This will also prevent the spread of pathogens (see also health and hygiene issues). Dead flies, spider webs, dust and other debris should be removed from the ventilation screen to ensure a good flow of air. The out of service pit should be well sealed to reduce water infiltration and a proper alternating schedule must be maintained.

      SuSanA on Flickr (2010)

A toilet emptier passes the bucket full of faecal sludge to his assistant. The man works without gloves, boots and mask, because these are too expensive. The health risk in this case is extremely high (left). Emptying a pit with a vacuum tanker is much easier but only possible if the sludge is enough liquid and equipment is available (right). The consistency of the VIP sludge could be a problem for emptying with pumps when it is too dry. Source: SuSanA on Flickr (2010) 

When the second pit is filled up until half a meter below the top, the first pit needs to be emptied (see also human powered and motorised emptying). As the first has ideally stood for several years, the decomposed sludge will not cause any health problems and is beneficial as a fertiliser (see also use of compost in agriculture).


At a Glance

Working Principle

A ventilated improved pit latrine (VIP) is similar to a single pit latrine with addition of a vertical vent pipe. Through the aeration in VIPs, odour and fly nuisances are reduced. Excreta, along with anal cleansing materials (water or solids) are deposited into a pit. Lining the pit prevents it from collapsing and provides support to the superstructure. In the case of two-pit VIPs, the second one can be used while the first one rests. When it is full, the first pit needs to be emptied.

Capacity/Adequacy

The VIP is designed for rural and peri-urban areas. It is simple to build and can be constructed by the user itself with locally available material.

Performance

The treatment processes of the faecal material in the pit are limited and stagnant water may promote insect breeding.

Costs

Low-cost

Self-help Compatibility

Can be built and repaired with locally available material. It must be maintained correctly and well-kept.

O&M

Apart from keeping it clean, there is no daily maintenance associated with a VIP. The vent pipe should be cleaned periodically to prevent clogging.

Reliability

If well maintained and constructed, the excreta is at least collected in the pit and risks of infections are lower.

Main strength

No water required; excreta is collected; odours and fly nuisance are reduced compared with a simple pit latrine.

Main weakness

There is danger of groundwater contamination, because of soil infiltration (especially in densely populated areas).

Applicability

Treatment processes in the Double VIP (aerobic, anaerobic, dehydration, composting or otherwise) are limited, and therefore, pathogen reduction and organic degradation is very low compared to composting or dehydration toilets. However, since the excreta is confined, pathogen transmission to the user is limited. The double VIP is more appropriate than the single VIP for denser, peri-urban areas (see also water sanitation and urbanisation). After the resting time, the soil-like material is manually emptied (it is dug out, not pumped out), so vacuum truck access to the pits is not necessary. Depending on the pit depth, depth to the water table, number of users and soil conditions, some pits can be used for 20 years without emptying.

The double VIP technology will only work properly if the two pits are used sequentially and not concurrently. Therefore, an adequate cover for the out of service pit is required. Double VIPs are especially appropriate when water is scarce and where there is a low groundwater table. They should be located in an area with a good breeze to allow for proper ventilation. They are not suited for rocky or compacted soils (that are difficult to dig) or for areas that flood frequently. Although the dehydration of the sludge is better because of the air circulation, there is still a risk of groundwater contamination (see also water pollution). Therefore it is very important that the groundwater is protected as well as possible. A horizontal distance of 30 m between the pit and a water source is recommended to limit exposure to chemical and biological contamination (TILLEY et al. 2008). The WHO (1992) advises a minimum of 15 m between a pollution source and a downstream water abstraction point. In densely populated areas with many pit latrines, the risk of a groundwater contamination is even higher.

Advantages

  • Longer life than single VIP (indefinite if maintained properly)
  • Excavation of humus is easier than faecal sludge
  • Significant reduction in pathogens
  • Potential for use of stored faecal material as soil conditioner
  • Flies and odours are significantly reduced (compared to non-ventilated pits)
  • Can be built and repaired with locally available materials
  • Does not require a constant source of water

Disadvantages

  • Leachate can contaminate groundwater
  • No specific reuse of faeces and urine
  • Pits are susceptible to failure/overflowing during floods, Stagnant water in pits may promote insect breeding
  • Manual removal of humus is required
  • Possible contamination of groundwater
  • Higher capital costs than Single VIP; but reduced operating costs if self-emptied

References Library

ARGOSS (Editor) (2001): Guidelines for Assessing the Risk to Groundwater from On-Site Sanitation. (= Commissioned Report, 142). Keyworth: British Geological Survey. URL [Accessed: 30.09.2013].

EAWAG/SANDEC (Editor) (2008): Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Lecture Notes . (= Sandec Training Tool 1.0, Module 4). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC).

Graham, J.; Polizotto, M.L. (2013): Pit Latrines and Their Impacts on Groundwater Quality: a systematic Review. Advance Publication. In: Environmental Health Perspectives. URL [Accessed: 09.04.2013].

LUETHI, C.; NIWAGABA, B.C.; GUENTHER, I.; HORST, A.; MULONGO, P.; GRUETER, R. (2013): Ventilated Improved Latrine Construction in the Slum Areas of Kampala, Uganda. Technical Factsheet. Zuerich: Nachdiplomstudium fuer Entwicklungslaender (NADEL) Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH). URL [Accessed: 10.10.2013].

MARA, D.D. (1984): The design of Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines. UNDP Interregional Project. (= United Nations Development Programme Interregional Project, 47). Washington: The World Bank. URL [Accessed: 11.10.2013].

MARA, D. (1996): Low-cost Urban Sanitation. United Kingdom: Wiley.

MORGAN, P.; EcoSanRes (Editor) (2009): Ecological Toilets. (pdf presentation). Stockholm: Stockholm Environment Institute.

SANIMAS (Editor) (2005): Informed Choice Catalogue. pdf presentation. BORDA and USAID.

TILLEY, E.; LUETHI, C.; MOREL, A.; ZURBRUEGG, C.; SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG) and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC). URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010].

See document in FRENCH

TILLEY, E.; ULRICH, L.; LUETHI, C.; REYMOND, P.; ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014].

WHO (Editor) (1992): A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO). URL [Accessed: 14.04.2010].

Further Readings Library

Reference icon

TILLEY, E.; ULRICH, L.; LUETHI, C.; REYMOND, P.; SCHERTENLEIB, R.; ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (Arabic). 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). PDF

This is the Arabic version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. The Compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.


Reference icon

EAWAG/SANDEC (Editor) (2008): Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Lecture Notes . (= Sandec Training Tool 1.0, Module 4). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC).

Lecture notes on technical and non-technical aspects of sanitation systems in developing countries.


Reference icon

ECOSAN CLUB (Editor) (2012): Faecal Sludge Management.. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice, 13). Vienna: Ecosan Club. URL [Accessed: 16.10.2012].

This issue presents studies from different regions (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Burkina Faso) that mainly show the non-existence of faecal sludge management. Additionally, the last paper describes a new technological solution (LaDePa) for producing hygienically safe organic fertiliser from sludge from ventilated improved pit toilets (VIPs).


Reference icon

HARVEY, P.; BAGHRI, S.; REED, B. (2002): Emergency Sanitation: Assessment and Programme Design. Loughborough: Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC). URL [Accessed: 21.02.2011].

This book has been written to help all those involved in planning and implementing emergency sanitation programmes. The main focus is a systematic and structured approach to assessment and programme design. There is a strong emphasis on socio-cultural issues and community participation throughout.Includes an extensive “guidelines” section with rapid assessment instructions and details on programme design, planning and implementation.


Reference icon

MARA, D.D. (1984): The design of Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines. UNDP Interregional Project. (= United Nations Development Programme Interregional Project, 47). Washington: The World Bank. URL [Accessed: 11.10.2013].

The purpose of this paper is to discuss general design criteria for VIP latrines and to review recent developments in VIP latrine design.


Reference icon

MONVOIS, J.; GABERT, J.; FRENOUX, C.; GUILLAUME, M. (2010): How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy, 4). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau). URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011].

The purpose of this guide is to assist local contracting authorities and their partners in identifying those sanitation technologies best suited to the different contexts that exist within their town. The first part of the guide contains a planning process and a set of criteria to be completed; these assist you in characterizing each area of intervention so that you are then in a position to identify the most appropriate technical solutions. The second part of the guide consists of technical factsheets which give a practical overview of the technical and economic characteristics, the operating principle and the pros and cons of the 29 sanitation technology options most commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa.

See document in FRENCH


Reference icon

MORGAN, P. (2011): A Blair VIP Latrine. A builder’s manual for the upgradeable BVIP model and a hand washing device. Zimbabwe: Government of Zimbabwe, National Action Committee for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation. URL [Accessed: 19.06.2013].

This is a detailed description on how to build a simple Blair VIP toilet and how to upgrade it. e Blair VIP (BVIP) toilet is a Zimbabwean invention and the forerunner of all VIP toilets. It has been a standardised piece of sanitary hardware recommended by the Government of Zimbabwe for 30+ years. The family unit is multipurpose and doubles as a washroom. A multi-compartment version is recommended for schools.


Reference icon

NATURE (Editor); MORGAN, P.; OTTERPOHL, R.; PARAMASIVAN, S.; HARRINGTON, E. (2012): Ecodesign: The Bottom Line. In: Nature: International Weekly Journal of Science 486, 186-189. URL [Accessed: 19.06.2012].

There is no single design solution to sanitation. But there are universal principles for systematically and safely detoxifying human excreta, without contaminating, wasting or even using water. Ecological sanitation design — which is focused on sustainability through reuse and recycling — offers workable solutions that are gaining footholds around the world, as Nature explores on the following pages through the work of Peter Morgan in Zimbabwe, Ralf Otterpohl and his team in Germany, Shunmuga Paramasivan in India, and Ed Harrington and his colleagues in California.


Reference icon

MORGAN, P. (2011): The Blair VIP. A Short History. Peter Morgan. URL [Accessed: 19.06.2013].

This simple document shows the development of the VIP toilet designed by the Blair Institute in Zimbabwe.


Reference icon

STILL, D.; O RIORDAN, M.; MC BRIDE, A.; LOUTON, B. (2013): Adventures in search of the ideal portable pit-emptying machine. Rugby: Practical Action Publishing. URL [Accessed: 07.08.2013].

This article explores the ideal portable pit-emptying machine for South Africa owing to site access constraints. The Water Research Commission of South Africa funded experimental development of a number of technologies designed to fill the gap between large vacuum tankers and manual emptying. This paper describes these attempts.


Reference icon

TILLEY, E.; ULRICH, L.; LUETHI, C.; REYMOND, P.; ZURBRUEGG, C. (2014): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. 2nd Revised Edition. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). URL [Accessed: 28.07.2014].

This compendium gives a systematic overview on different sanitation systems and technologies and describes a wide range of available low-cost sanitation technologies.


Reference icon

TOUBKISS, J. (2010): How to Manage Public Toilets and Showers. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy, 5). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau). URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011].

The purpose of this decision-making aid is to provide practical advice and recommendations for managing toilet blocks situated in public places. It is primarily aimed at local decision-makers in developing countries and at their partners (project planners and managers).

See document in FRENCH


Reference icon

USAID Afghanistan (Editor) (2010): Latrine and Sanitation Options Manual. Sustainable Water Supply and Sanitation (SWSS) Project. Kabul: USAID Afghanistan. URL [Accessed: 15.01.2013].

This Manual aims to serve as a practical guide for the selection of sanitation technology options to satisfy local desires and meet national needs in Afghanistan. It is useful for the professionals and organisations working to address fecal contamination across Afghanistan.


Reference icon

WATERAID (2008): Technology Notes. London: WaterAid. URL [Accessed: 04.01.2011].

These technology notes have been prepared following many general enquiries for technical information having been received by WaterAid over the years. Their purpose is to give an outline of the technologies used by WaterAid on long-term development projects in Africa and Asia, and to show alternatives, which might be appropriate in different circumstances. It may be possible to determine from the notes the technology, which would be appropriate in a particular location.


Reference icon

WHO (Editor) (1992): A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO). URL [Accessed: 14.04.2010].

The publication presents appropriate technologies for sanitation and highlights socio-economic aspects of planning and implementing. Emphasis is given to household-level sanitation improvements for urban areas, as well as rural areas and small communities. Background information on sanitation, in-depth technical information on the design, construction, operation and maintenance and project planning and development processes involved in projects and programmes complement the book.


Reference icon

WHO (Editor) (2006): Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater excreta and greywater. Volume IV. Excreta and Greywater Use in Agriculture. Geneva: World Health Organisation. URL [Accessed: 26.02.2010].

Volume IV of the Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater recognizes the reuse potential of wastewater and excreta (including urine) in agriculture and describes the present state of knowledge as regards potential health risks associated with the reuse as well as measures to manage these health risks following a multi-barrier approach.


Case Studies Library

Reference icon

KABONGO, I.; KABISWA, C. (2008): Pit Latrines & their Impact on Groundwater in Small Towns in Uganda. A Case of Bugiri Town Council. Kampala: Ecological Christian Organisation. URL [Accessed: 06.12.2010].

This paper investigates the groundwater contamination due to poorly designed pit latrines and inadequate protected water sources.


Reference icon

LUETHI, C.; NIWAGABA, B.C.; GUENTHER, I.; HORST, A.; MULONGO, P.; GRUETER, R. (2013): Ventilated Improved Latrine Construction in the Slum Areas of Kampala, Uganda. Technical Factsheet. Zuerich: Nachdiplomstudium fuer Entwicklungslaender (NADEL) Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH). URL [Accessed: 10.10.2013].

The Urban Affordable Clean Toilets (U-ACT) project aims at overcoming the constraints to private sanitation investment in poor urban areas. Field research was conducted in 40 randomly selected low-income areas of Uganda’s capital Kampala where people rely on on-site sanitation. The sanitation situation in these urban slum zones is characterised by a high number of users per toilet, and full or overflowing latrines that are not regularly emptied. This factsheet provides information on the construction and cost details of ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines.


Reference icon

MORGAN, P. (2007): Available Sanitation Technologies for Rural and Peri-Urban Africa. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). URL [Accessed: 20.06.2013].

The presentation allows for a good overview on existing types of pit latrines in Africa, but also on other types of sanitation technologies such as the conventional flush toilet, the pour flush toilet, and the urine diversion dehydration toilet (UDDT).


Reference icon

SHANGWA, A.; MORGAN, P. (2008): How We Made an Arborloo Which Can be Upgraded to VIP. The Chisungu Primary School Water and Sanitation project. Stockholm : Ecological Sanitation Research (EcoSanRes), Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI). URL [Accessed: 19.06.2013].

The Arborloo is the simplest ecological toilet and is an effective way of starting low cost sanitation programmes. It also demonstrates how valuable the nutrients in human excreta can be. This presentation gives an insight into the following aspects: - What is anArborloo? - What is an Arborloo? - Stages in life of the Arborloo - Planting trees on or near Arborloo pits - Stages in the construction of the Arborloo - Vent pipes - Construction of the Blair VIP


Reference icon

UNEP (Editor) (2002): A Directory of Environmentally Sound Technologies for the Integrated Management of Solid, Liquid and Hazardous Waste for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific Region. The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). URL [Accessed: 28.03.2012].

This directory is part of UNEP collaboration with SIDS on the implementation of the Waste Management chapter of the Barbados Programme of Action. It focuses primarily on proven sound environmental technologies for solid, liquid and hazardous waste management plus those currently successfully being used in SIDS within the Pacific Region.


Reference icon

WATERAID (Editor) (n.y.): The ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine. London: WaterAid. URL [Accessed: 08.12.2010].

This poster shows a nice drawing how a VIP works and what needs to be considered.


Awareness Raising Material Library

Reference icon

WELL (Editor) (2006): The Microbial Contamination of Water Supplies from Pit Latrines. (= WELL Fact-sheets). Loughborough: Water and Environmental health at London and Loughborough (WELL). URL [Accessed: 07.12.2010].

This factsheet describes the microbiological contamination of water supplies. It gives an overview on pathogens and its characteristics as well as methods to reduce the risk of contamination.


Training Material Library

Reference icon

PRACTICAL ACTION (Editor) (n.y.): Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines . (= Technical Briefs). Bourton on Dunsmore: Practical Action, Schumacher Centre for Technology & Development. URL [Accessed: 05.01.2011].

Short brief on the construction of ventilated improved pit latrines


Reference icon

REED, B.; SHAW, R. (2013): Latrine Slabs. (= WEDC Posters, 1). London: Water, Engineering and Development Center (WEDC). URL [Accessed: 07.08.2013].

This poster is part of the series of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene posters designed by the Water, Engineering and Development Center of Loughborough University.


Reference icon

REED, B.; SHAW, R. (2013): Simple Pit Latrines. Poster. (= WEDC Posters, 10). London: Water, Engineering and Development Center (WEDC). URL [Accessed: 28.08.2013].

This poster is part of the series of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene posters designed by the Water, Engineering and Development Center of Loughborough University.


Reference icon

PICKFORD, J.; SHAW, R. (1997): Emptying Pit Latrines. (= Technical Briefs, No. 54). Loughborough: Water and Environmental health at London and Loughborough (WELL). URL [Accessed: 26.04.2010].

This technical brief describes several possibilities of emptying pit latrines and helps to find the most suitable method.


Reference icon

WELL (Editor) (n.y.): Latrine Slabs and Seats. (= WELL Technical Briefs, 45). Loughborough: Water and Environmental health at London and Loughborough (WELL). URL [Accessed: 26.04.2010].

This technical brief describes pit latrines and possible slabs and seats to cover them.


Important Weblinks

http://www.irc.nl/page/79727 [Accessed: 07.08.2013]

This video by IRC’s WASHCost project examines the full costs of building traditional latrines in Mozambique. There, cost data for planning are collected by local authorities. They gather the information around households in the area. Households are visited and their sanitation situation is assessed. This gives a clear picture of what is actually achieved.