School Campaigns (DC)

Compiled by:
Arne Menn (seecon international gmbh)

Executive Summary

A school campaign on water and sanitation consists of two main components: one component is the provision of safe water and sanitation facilities in schools. The other component is a school education that promotes practices helping to prevent water and sanitation-related diseases and teaches the wise use of water and favourable hygiene behaviour in the future generation of adults. Therefore, an effective school programme consists of adequate planning, management, training and capacity building, coordination among the institutions involved, and participatory education in addition to sound construction of water and sanitation facilities with child-friendly designs (MOOIJMAN et al. 2010). If these conditions are created, children come to school, enjoy learning, learn better and take back to their families and communities concepts and practices on water, sanitation and hygiene. This factsheet gives an overview on issues to consider when planning a school campaign.

The Challenge

Today, in many countries, students suffer from non-existent or insufficient water supply, sanitation and hand washing facilities; toilets that are not adapted to the needs of children, in particular girls; broken, dirty and unsafe facilities; non-existent or irrelevant health and hygiene education for children and dirty classrooms and school compounds (MOOIJMAN et al. 2010). Besides health impacts and the spread of diseases and intestinal parasites (see also health and hygiene issues), none of these conditions make learning pleasurable or easy. In the long term, educational achievement is one of the most important determinants of health, life expectancy, economic productivity, and the wellbeing of future generations. Safe water to drink, water and soap to wash hands, and clean and private toilets make healthy, child-friendly schools, and healthy schools make healthy children (NAGPAL 2010).

Why Schools?

Schools present an opportunity to reach thousands of children with safe water and hygiene and health messages (NAGPAL 2010). They provide unique opportunities for awareness raising as they bring large groups of people together for learning purposes and usually have systems for production and dissemination of educational material (SCHAAP and VAN STEENBERGEN 2001). Schools can also provide an entry point to the community as a whole, for example, the introduction of latrines and hygiene-education at schools, for example by using the CHAST-approach, may trigger the development of improved hygiene norms in the household, because children take back to their families concepts and practices on water and sanitation.

More than Construction of Facilities

The provision of safe water and sanitation facilities in schools is a first step towards a healthy physical learning environment benefiting both learning and health (SNEL 2003). However, the mere provision of facilities does not make them sustainable or produce the desired impact. It is the use of facilities and the related appropriate behaviours of people that provide benefits for the community. In schools, education aims to promote those practices that will help prevent water and sanitation-related diseases as well as promoting the wise use of water and favourable hygiene behaviour in the future generation of adults. The combination of adequate facilities, correct behavioural practices and education is meant to have a positive impact on the health and hygiene conditions of the community as a whole, both now and in the future. The success of a school hygiene programme is therefore not determined only by the number of latrines constructed and the number of hand pumps installed or water connexions built. Nor is the success of a programme determined simply by what children know (SNEL 2003). A good School Campaign will find an optimal combination of different objectives and a balance between provision of safe water and sanitation facilities, and educational, behavioural and promotional aspects such as including the issue in the schools curriculum (SCHAAP and VAN STEENBERGEN 2001).

The Actors and Their Roles: Participation in Planning

 KROPAC, M. (2009)

A successful school campaign in Nepal, where the family and wider community were involved into the programme. On this day, the school became an award for its leadership in making the village open defecation free. Source: KROPAC (2009)

In the school, participation in planning is not only related to planning construction, but also to maintenance, use and management (IRC 2007). Those directly concerned are teachers, girl and boy students, school heads, parents, the school management committee and parent organisations. In many programmes, health workers, other local government workers, and members of NGOs and community-based organisations are also involved. Participation is important because it can help ensure that facilities are used and maintained and new insights are acquired (IRC 2007). Participation in decisions also makes children and adults more proud of and responsible for what they have created. Community involvement may enable a programme to have a broader impact. It is hoped that a school campaign will initiate a process of passing on information and behavioural changes from school to household to community, or, in other words, from students to siblings, friends and neighbours (IRC 2007). School children may be involved in activities at the community level, for instance collecting environmental data, surveying homes, counting latrines and distributing materials. Their involvement may also go one step further, to the promotion of community sanitation and hygiene (see also young people as promoters).

 MOOIJMAN et al. 2010

The vision: Main actors involved and their roles in a school sanitation, water and hygiene education campaign. Source: MOOIJMAN et al. (2010)

In addition to the community-based participation, the implementation of school programmes requires support at regional (or national) level. Experiences have shown that only a small number of headmasters will have the time and the capacity to develop a schools programme without the support from the intermediate level (IRC 2007). Those headmasters and teachers working in remote areas need support in particular. At district/regional level, it is important to dedicate a large proportion of available resources to the support of teachers and to the continuous capacity building of regional staff, teachers and headmasters. There is a need for regular follow up through a supervisory system and periodic visits to schools. This enables support and supervision of the teachers in their implementation of sound education, the effective operation and maintenance of the facilities, and the involvement of and outreach to communities. The provision of logistical support is therefore essential, as well as the distribution of sufficient teaching materials (IRC 2007).

How to Conduct a School Campaign

Possible steps — some of which are carried out at the same time — for implementing a school campaign are described below (adapted from MOOIJMAN et al. 2010; IRC 2007):

 

Step 1 — Explore

 

  • Make a plan of your activities
  • Baseline data collection: Useful for planning at the beginning of the programme and monitoring at later stages. The purpose of a baseline study is to build on current strengths and get information to make plans that will prevent or solve problems. Topics for a baseline study include: current situation concerning water, toilets, urinals, capacity, curriculum and teaching, community
  • Form a Village Education Committee (VEC)
  • Raise awareness among community members
  • Organise community contribution
  • Explore funding sources

 

Step 2 — Decide

 

 

Step 3 — Implement Software and Hardware

 

  • Train teachers and head teachers
  • Train other community people (VEC, water committees, health workers, etc.)
  • Develop/ search hygiene/ sanitation/ water education materials
  • Keep school compounds and classrooms clean
  • Adapt and test training materials and teaching aids in classes
  • Calculate bill of quantities and select contractor/ supplier for hardware
  • Agree on specifications and quality check and who will certify
  • Organise construction of the facilities; community inputs
  • Organise (skilled) help for construction
  • Check construction quality and timelines

 

Step 4 — Ensure Sustainability

 

  • Organise children to collect water, filling tanks and receptacles so that enough water is always available at all times
  • Organise children to maintain and clean toilets, water points, school grounds
  • Teach children proper use of toilets and hand washing
  • Monitor use of the toilets
  • Do repairs and replacements in schools
  • Solve problems when the school facilities are not maintained or break down
  • Organise ongoing learning activities in classrooms
  • Organise learning & communication activities outside the classroom: camps, campaigns, etc.
  • Form groups or clubs of pupils in their school
  • Organise various activities periodically to collect funds for activities and repairs
  • Cover recurrent expenditures for soap, repairs, etc.
  • Organise refresher training each year

Operation and Maintenance as the Key Issue in Ensuring Sustainability

A school campaign does not end when the water and sanitation facilities have been constructed. The period following construction usually receives too little attention from programme planners and implementers, and continuous inputs are needed to ensure sustainability. It is often assumed that national and local governments take responsibility for a healthy school environment. However, it is often necessary to rely on students, teachers, parents and community groups for the improvement of the situation at schools, including the operation and maintenance of school facilities. To prevent rapid run-down of facilities, different kinds of maintenance are necessary (SNEL 2003):

 

  • Upkeep; cleaning and maintenance activities to be done by teachers, children and other users on a regular basis.
  • Minor repairs and preventive maintenance such as greasing, bolts, fixing taps, cracks, and broken doors, once a week at least.
  • Major repairs such as the repairs that cannot be done by children, teachers or their parents. They can be referred to the village mechanic, a block mechanic or engineering divisions.

 

To ensure school sanitation programmes are sustainable, schools and communities should cover all operation and maintenance costs. Contributions can be in the form of materials, labour, cash or all three. Schools can join hands with families and communities to raise money for the construction and to organise the operation and maintenance of the facilities. Some possible funding options include (IRC 2007):

 

  • Contributions from parents
  • Donations
  • Using the general school maintenance budget
  • Organisation of income-generating activities

 

Further ideas for funding possibilities can be found here.

Child-Friendly Facilities

Child-friendly facilities are easy and pleasant for children to use. Some things to take into account are (IRC 2007):

 

  • Strength needed to use the pump or to open taps
  • Toilets and urinals need to be well-ventilated
  • Height of doorknobs and locks of latrines
  • Posters showing how to use the facilities, maybe with cartoons
  • Little painted figures in the facilities to train aiming
  • Painted walls to make the facilities an interesting place

 

In addition, there are things to consider when selecting the location for toilets and urinals (IRC 2007):

Children must feel safe and comfortable when visiting the toilets or water points. They must not feel that they will be teased by other children or molested. Older girls in particular need privacy when entering and using facilities. The accessibility of toilets and taps must be assured even after heavy rains. Hand washing facilities should be located near toilets so that children will be more likely to wash hands after defecating. Toilets must be located away from and downhill from drinking water facilities.

Example: School-Led Total Sanitation in Nepal

 ADHIKARI & SHRESTHRA (n.y.)

Children and women participating in a sanitation promotion rally in Nepal. Source: ADHIKARI & SHRESTHRA (n.y.)

"In Baijalpur village in Kapilvastu, Nepal, school children lead the community sanitation drive. In a country where only 39% of the population have access to a toilet, Baijalpur village is setting an example: today, every home in the village has a latrine. UNICEF and the Water Supply and Sanitation Sub Divisional Office (WSSDO) in Kapilvastu launched the School-Led Total Sanitation (SLTS) project in 2005 and trained the teachers and initially offered to provide technical support. Spearheading this community drive in sanitation and hygiene is a band of school children and teachers of the Shree Pancha Primary School. After the children received training from their teachers, they began to campaign and educate their often-illiterate parents and neighbours about the benefits of constructing a latrine and keeping their community clean. Within a year of beginning the School-Led Total Sanitation programme, the residents of Baijalpur had achieved the goal of constructing a latrine in all of the 314 homes" (MOOIJMAN et al. 2010).

Applicability

Generally, the campaign objectives should be suitable to the children and the country. Specific water, sanitation and hygiene issues may be unique to certain countries, population groups or areas. The cultural or religious background can be crucial when addressing sanitation and hygiene aspects, which affect certain traditions or norms.

Usually, the implementation of school programmes requires support at regional (or national) level, especially in remote areas. When selecting schools for the campaign one should consider:

Readiness of the community: As a principle, it is useful to start with communities that are prepared and want to participate.

Existing school infrastructure: In many schools, the basic infrastructure is very poor. In such situations, it is highly advisable to create water and sanitation facilities at the same time that basic improvements are made to the school.

Political interference: In some cases, elected officials have a good overview of the demands and needs of different schools and communities. In other cases, political involvement is not in the best interest of the programme and will not improve the programme’s credibility (IRC 2007).
 

Advantages

  • Schools can easily reach children with water and sanitation messages
  • Safe water and sanitation facilities in schools are important steps against the spread of diseases and intestinal parasites
  • A school campaign will initiate a process of passing on water and sanitation information and behavioural changes from school to household to community
  • Schools usually provide unique systems for production and dissemination of educational material
  • Combining the provision of safe water and sanitation facilities with educational, behavioural and promotional aspects will have a positive impact on the conditions of the community

Disadvantages

  • Implementation usually requires support at regional (or national) level (government, NGOs)
  • Community participation in decision-making can be complicated and takes time
  • Costs for building/replacing facilities and for soap, chlorine etc.
  • Management and covering of costs for operation and maintenance (upkeep, cleaning, repairing) is difficult to organise
  • As well as the children, teachers have to be trained and motivated to be role models for others

References Library

ADHIKARI, S. ; SHRESTHA, N.L. (Editor) (n.y.): School Led Total Sanitation: A Successful Model to Promote School and Community Sanitation and Hygiene in Nepal. Nepal: UNICEF. URL [Accessed: 04.10.2010].

IRC (Editor) (2007): Towards Effective Programming for WASH in Schools: A manual on scaling up programmes for water, sanitation and hygiene in schools . (= Technical Paper Series No. 48). Delft: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

MOOIJMAN, A.; SNEL, M.; GANGULY, S.; SHORDT, K. (2010): Strengthening Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Schools – A WASH guidance manual with a focus on South Asia. (= Technical Paper Series No. 53). The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. URL [Accessed: 22.04.2010].

NAGPAL, T. (2010): Clean Start: Focusing on School Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: A Reflection from GWC. Washington D.C.: Global Water Challenge. URL [Accessed: 04.10.2010].

SCHAAP, W.; STEENBERGEN, F. van (2001): Ideas for Water Awareness Campaigns. Stockholm: The Global Water Partnership. URL [Accessed: 17.04.2012].

SNEL (Editor) (2003): School Sanitation and Hygiene Education. (= Thematic Overview Paper). Delft: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. URL [Accessed: 04.10.2010].

Further Readings Library

Reference icon

IRC (Editor) (2007): Towards Effective Programming for WASH in Schools: A manual on scaling up programmes for water, sanitation and hygiene in schools . (= Technical Paper Series No. 48). Delft: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

This manual deals with school water, sanitation and hygiene education. It describes many of the elements needed for scaling up programmes for water, sanitation and hygiene in schools while ensuring quality and sustainability. It contains many examples, most of which are drawn from a UNICEF-IRC pilot study for School Sanitation and Hygiene Education (SSHE) carried out in six countries (Burkina Faso, Colombia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Vietnam, and Zambia).


Reference icon

SCHAAP, W.; STEENBERGEN, F. van (2001): Ideas for Water Awareness Campaigns. Stockholm: The Global Water Partnership. URL [Accessed: 17.04.2012].

This document includes a section for advocacy, presenting an overview of many ideas and initiatives with emphasis on practical suggestions and clues. It is not a guidebook for planning your advocacy work but it might be a great knowledge source and starting point for your activities.


Reference icon

UN-HABITAT (Editor) (2006): Facilitators & Trainers guideBook. Human Values-based Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Classrooms. Nairobi: United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT). URL [Accessed: 22.04.2010].

This guidebook targets the water and sanitation service sector, such as public or private utilities in urban centres who wish to engage in water and sanitation education activities through dedicated classrooms. It also focuses on encouraging schools to cooperate with the water and sanitation sector on joint education initiatives.


Reference icon

UN-HABITAT (Editor) (2006): Facilitators & Trainers guideBook Part 2. Human Values-based Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Classrooms. Nairobi: United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT).

This part of the trainers guide provides the trainer with applications of knowledge transfer to learners: Various approaches and methodologies of education are explored and applications of these are further demonstrated in a collection of lesson plans. It is a source of information and provides examples of classroom activities.


Reference icon

MOOIJMAN, A.; SNEL, M.; GANGULY, S.; SHORDT, K. (2010): Strengthening Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Schools – A WASH guidance manual with a focus on South Asia. (= Technical Paper Series No. 53). The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. URL [Accessed: 22.04.2010].

This Manual is meant for managers and trainers involved in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in school programmes operating at different levels, such as state/ province, district or block. It also provides many useful guidelines and activities that apply to similar programmes elsewhere. The manual can be used in various ways, such as to assist in the planning, designing, implementing and/or monitoring of schools programmes.


Reference icon

ADHIKARI, S. ; SHRESTHA, N.L. (Editor) (n.y.): School Led Total Sanitation: A Successful Model to Promote School and Community Sanitation and Hygiene in Nepal. Nepal: UNICEF. URL [Accessed: 04.10.2010].

The paper shows how School Led Total Sanitation (SLTS) has had very promising results to date and paves the way to speed up the process of intensive latrine coverage in school catchment areas.


Reference icon

ADHIKARI, S.; SHRESTHA, N.L.; MALLA, M. ; SHRESTHA, G.R. (Editor) (n.y.): Nepal School Led Total Sanitation Seems Unstoppable. Nepal: UNICEF. URL [Accessed: 04.10.2010].

This paper shows the success of SLTS in Nepal. It describes the actions taken and includes some pictures from programmes, which help to understand the impact of the programme.


Reference icon

KHANAL, S.; MENDOZA, R.; PHIRI, C.; ROP, R.; SNEL, M.; VAN WIJK, C. (2005): The Joy of Learning: Participatory lesson plans on hygiene, sanitation, water, health and the environment. (= Technical Paper Series No. 45). Delft: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

This paper is a guide for teachers and others who want to design participatory learning activities on hygiene and sanitation as part of, or in addition to, their school curriculum or in work with other children aged 2 to 14. It contains a series of information sheets for planning, implementing and evaluating participatory learning activities on a specific subject. Examples include personal hygiene, the safe transport and handling of water, protecting local water sources, and locally prevailing disease transmission routes.


Reference icon

IRC (Editor) (2003): School Sanitation and Hygiene Education. Thematic Overview Paper. Delft: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.

This paper focuses on sanitation and hygiene education at the school level. It may be of relevance to practitioners and to academics who are working directly or indirectly on school sanitation and hygiene education, e.g. managers and trainers involved in school programmes operating at the state, district or community level.


Reference icon

SUSANA (Editor) (2010): Sustainable Sanitation for Schools. (= SuSanA Factsheet). Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA). URL [Accessed: 22.04.2012].

The aim of this Factsheet is to advocate for sustainable school sanitation by highlighting existing challenges, exploring the various innovations both in hardware and software from examples in Africa, Asia, and South America identifying the common principles that are needed for successful implementation.


Reference icon

TOUBKISS, J. (2010): How to Manage Public Toilets and Showers. (= Six Methodological Guides for a Water and Sanitation Services' Development Strategy, 5). Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau). URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011].

The purpose of this decision-making aid is to provide practical advice and recommendations for managing toilet blocks situated in public places. It is primarily aimed at local decision-makers in developing countries and at their partners (project planners and managers).

See document in FRENCH


Reference icon

UNICEF (2013): Equity of Access to WASH in Schools: A Comparative Study of Policy and Service Delivery. New York: UNICEF. URL [Accessed: 17.04.2013].

This study presents findings from a six-country study conducted by UNICEF and the Center for Global Safe Water at Emory University in collaboration with UNICEF country offices in Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, the Philippines, Timor-Leste, Uganda and Uzbekistan and their partners. The six case studies presented together contribute to the broader understanding of inequities in WASH in Schools access by describing various dimensions that contribute to equitable or inequitable access across regions, cultures, gender and communities.

Language: Spanish


Case Studies Library

Reference icon

UNICEF (Editor) (2005): Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Education. New York: United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (Water, Environment and Sanitation Section). URL [Accessed: 22.04.2012].

Tajikistan is a country where limited access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation facilities is exacerbated by lack of knowledge and improper hygiene practices in communities. The document “The quality of participation in Tajikistan”, is meaningful and effective, with children and young people at each school actively involved at all stages of programme design and implementation on a daily basis.


Awareness Raising Material Library

Reference icon

PHADKE, S. (2009): Kidsan. Pune: Aman Setu Publication.

Comic strip by Sourabh Phadke about the importance of children in the process of sustainable sanitation and how to involve them through education and activities.


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PHADKE, S. (2009): Poo. Pune: Aman Setu Publication. URL [Accessed: 22.04.2012].

This comic strip by Sourabh Phadke explains why sanitation matters, how urine and faeces can be treated and how technical measures should be applied. A great piece of artwork and a funny reality check for sanitation issues.

See document in HINDI


Reference icon

UN-WATER (Editor) (2006): Water: The Challenges. Educational poster. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2 (WWDR2). Perugia: United Nations World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP).

Using data and graphics from WWDR2, this two-sided poster presents the main water-related challenge areas and local actions from the WWAP case studies. The poster is available in A1-size upon request to wwap@unesco.org.


Reference icon

VELASQUEZ ORTA, S. ; FURLONG, C. (2009): Messages for Youth. The United Nations World Water Development Report 3: Water in a Changing World. Perugia: United Nations World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP). URL [Accessed: 17.04.2012].

This 4-page factsheet provides messages for children and youth and answers questions like: How does the worldwide water situation affect young people? How does the way we use water have an impact on the environment? Youth and water, what can you do?


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WATERAID (Editor) (2008): Children and WaterAid. Issue sheet. London: WaterAid.

This Factsheet by WaterAid explains the impacts of unsafe water, poor sanitation and bad hygiene on children and what can be done to address these problems.


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ECOSAN CLUB (Editor) (2013): Sanitation Comics. (= Sustainable Sanitation Practice, 15). Vienna: Ecosan Club. URL [Accessed: 21.06.2013].

Cartoonists from all over the world have produced comics on sanitation, put together in this publication.


Training Material Library

Reference icon

WORLD BANK (Editor); UNICEF (Editor); WSP (Editor) (2001): Toolkit on Hygiene, Sanitation and Water in Schools. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. URL [Accessed: 22.04.2012].

Hygiene, Sanitation, and Water in Schools projects can create an enabling learning environment that contributes children's improved health, welfare, and learning performance. This Toolkit makes available information, resources, and tools that provide support to the preparation and implementation of hygiene, sanitation, and water in schools policies and projects.


Important Weblinks

http://www.unicef.org/ [Accessed: 26.08.2010]

This link highlights the importance of gender mainstreaming to achieve gender balance and reduce inequality.

http://www.washinschools.com/ [Accessed: 13.05.2010]

The official WASH in Schools-website provides information packs for the WASH in Schools Campaign. Information, Education and Communication Packs are available for download.

http://www.unesco.org/ [Accessed: 20.07.2010]

The website of the World Water Assessment Program (WWAP) serves as a thematic entry point to the current UNESCO and UNESCO-led programmes on freshwater. It offers a review of case studies to highlight the challenges that need to be addressed in the water resources sector including water-pricing issues.

http://www.wateraid.org/ [Accessed: 22.04.2010]

Learn zone is a free teaching resource for primary and secondary schools about water around the world. Cross-curricular themes explore global issues around access to clean, safe water, sanitation and hygiene education. Ready-to-use activities engage classes with thought-provoking questions, role-play, enquiry mysteries and much more. Learners can interact with a range of media resources – from slideshows, films and games to real people's stories and images.

http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/ [Accessed: 22.04.2010]

The official website of the World Water Council provides information on education on water-related issues. Each chapter is illustrated by examples of already existing initiatives complete with links to useful and related websites.

http://www.projectwet.org/ [Accessed: 22.04.2010]

Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is a non-profit water education program that prepares curricula and materials on various water topics and devotes much attention to training teachers how to use them. The Project WET curriculum and activity guide is available to all formal and informal educators. The program started in the USA but now there are internationally sponsored Project WET programs together with other organizations.

http://www.waterforlife.nsw.gov.au/ [Accessed: 22.04.2010]

Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is a non-profit water education program that prepares curricula and materials on various water topics and devotes much attention to training teachers how to use them. The Project WET curriculum and activity guide is available to all formal and informal educators. The program started in the USA but now there are internationally sponsored Project WET programs together with other organizations.

http://www.pub.gov.sg/ [Accessed: 22.04.2010]

This website presents worksheets for students. Teachers may photocopy these worksheets for their students for classroom use. The worksheets include exercises to test students' knowledge on different aspects of water conservation. Students will learn more about the importance of water through the activity worksheets. Answers to the exercises can be found at the bottom of each worksheet.

http://www.sourabh.tk/ [Accessed: 22.04.2010]

This website by Sourabh Phadke is a great source for various kinds of awareness raising materials including videos and funny cartoon strips especially interesting for education.

http://www.schools.watsan.net/ [Accessed: 22.04.2010]

This website for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in Schools serves as a discussion platform, a place for information exchange, questions to experts and event announcements related to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in schools.

http://www.lboro.ac.uk/ [Accessed: 08.04.2010]

This website is a focal point for providing access to information about water, sanitation and environmental health and related issues in developing and transitional countries.

http://www.wateraid.org/ [Accessed: 22.04.2010]

Learn zone is a free teaching resource for primary and secondary schools about water around the world. Cross-curricular themes explore global issues around access to clean, safe water, sanitation and hygiene education. Ready-to-use activities engage classes with thought-provoking questions, role-play, enquiry mysteries and much more. Learners can interact with a range of media resources – from slideshows, films and games to real people's stories and images.

http://www.globalwaterchallenge.org/ [Accessed: 13.05.2010]

This website by the Global Water Challenge provides resources and documents on creative and sustainable solutions for universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation.

http://www.globalhandwashing.org [Accessed: 17.10.2010]

An entire website dedicated to the importance of hand washing. The site is particularly interesting for the school context and also contains further reading materials.